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      Induction of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in a Low-Susceptible Albino Oxford Rat Strain by Somatostatin Analogue SMS 201-995

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          Objective: The effect of the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 (octreotide; OCT) on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the relatively resistant Albino Oxford (AO) strain of rats was studied. Methods: Animals were actively immunized with bovine brain homogenate in complete Freund’s adjuvant. OCT was given subcutaneously in the hind legs on days 7, 8 and 9 after immunization, at a dose of 3 × 5 µg/kg/day. Rats in control groups were treated with saline or were left untreated. EAE was scored clinically and immunophenotypically, estimating by flow cytometry the changes in the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN) and spleen and monitoring immunohistologically the brain sections of rats recovered from disease. Results: In control AO rats, EAE was induced in only 2 of 22 rats (9%). In OCT-treated rats, however, EAE developed in 11 of 20 rats (55%), in comparison with 3 of 17 saline-treated animals (17%) (p < 0.05). In PLN of OCT-treated rats during the clinical course of EAE, a decreased proportion of OX8+ cells was seen, followed by increases in OX39+ and W3/25+ cells on days 17 and 26. In spleen, OCT decreased the proportion of OX1+, OX39+ and OX8+ cells (on days 12 and/or 17), and increased the proportion of OX39+ cells on days 26 and 31. In the brain sections of saline-treated rats recovered from EAE, numerous Mac-1+, Mac-3+ and OX8+ cells were found. These cells were, however, absent in OCT-treated rats; instead, several W3/25+ cells were noticed. Conclusions: These data imply that OCT increases the susceptibility of AO rats to EAE, interfering with specific and/or nonspecific defense mechanisms operating in both the initial and recovery phase of EAE.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Somatostatin and its receptor family.

           Chirayu Patel (1999)
          Somatostatin (SST), a regulatory peptide, is produced by neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and immune cells in response to ions, nutrients, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, thyroid and steroid hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. The peptide is released in large amounts from storage pools of secretory cells, or in small amounts from activated immune and inflammatory cells, and acts as an endogenous inhibitory regulator of the secretory and proliferative responses of target cells that are widely distributed in the brain and periphery. These actions are mediated by a family of seven transmembrane (TM) domain G-protein-coupled receptors that comprise five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) that are endoded by separate genes segregated on different chromosomes. The five receptor subtypes bind the natural SST peptides, SST-14 and SST-28, with low nanomolar affinity. Short synthetic octapeptide and hexapeptide analogs bind well to only three of the subtypes, 2, 3, and 5. Selective nonpeptide agonists with nanomolar affinity have been developed for four of the subtypes (SSTR1, 2, 3, and 4) and putative peptide antagonists for SSTR2 and SSTR5 have been identified. The ligand binding domain for SST ligands is made up of residues in TMs III-VII with a potential contribution by the second extracellular loop. SSTRs are widely expressed in many tissues, frequently as multiple subtypes that coexist in the same cell. The five receptors share common signaling pathways such as the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, activation of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP), and modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) through G-protein-dependent mechanisms. Some of the subtypes are also coupled to inward rectifying K(+) channels (SSTR2, 3, 4, 5), to voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (SSTR1, 2), a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (SSTR1), AMPA/kainate glutamate channels (SSTR1, 2), phospholipase C (SSTR2, 5), and phospholipase A(2) (SSTR4). SSTRs block cell secretion by inhibiting intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) and by a receptor-linked distal effect on exocytosis. Four of the receptors (SSTR1, 2, 4, and 5) induce cell cycle arrest via PTP-dependent modulation of MAPK, associated with induction of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein and p21. In contrast, SSTR3 uniquely triggers PTP-dependent apoptosis accompanied by activation of p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5 display acute desensitization of adenylyl cyclase coupling. Four of the subtypes (SSTR2, 3, 4, and 5) undergo rapid agonist-dependent endocytosis. SSTR1 fails to be internalized but is instead upregulated at the membrane in response to continued agonist exposure. Among the wide spectrum of SST effects, several biological responses have been identified that display absolute or relative subtype selectivity. These include GH secretion (SSTR2 and 5), insulin secretion (SSTR5), glucagon secretion (SSTR2), and immune responses (SSTR2). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
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            CRH and the immune system.

            Inflammatory cytokines released during immune system activation can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cause increased secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropin and glucocorticoids. Identification of CRH peptide and mRNA, as well as its receptors in immune tissues, suggested a role for this peptide as a mediator of the neuroendocrine-immune interactions. Experimental evidence suggests that CRH may modulate the immune and inflammatory responses via two pathways: an antiinflammatory one operated by centrally released CRH, most likely through stimulation of glucocorticoid and catecholamine release, and one proinflammatory, through direct action of peripherally released CRH. This review highlights these concepts. In addition preliminary data on immune activation and inflammatory response in CRH-deficient mice created in our laboratory are discussed.
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              A central nervous system defect in biosynthesis of corticotropin-releasing hormone is associated with susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis in Lewis rats.

              We have recently found that susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis in Lewis (LEW/N) rats is due, in part, to defective inflammatory and stress mediator-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Conversely, the relative arthritis resistance of histocompatible Fischer (F344/N) rats is related to their intact responses to the same stimuli. Specifically, LEW/N rats, in contrast to F344/N rats, have markedly impaired plasma corticotropin and corticosterone responses to SCW, recombinant human interleukin 1 alpha, the serotonin agonist quipazine, or synthetic rat/human corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). To explore the mechanism of this defect, we examined the functional integrity of the hypothalamic CRH neuron in LEW/N rats compared to F344/N rats. LEW/N rats, in contrast to F344/N rats, showed profoundly deficient paraventricular nucleus CRH mRNA levels and hypothalamic CRH content in response to SCW. Compared to F344/N rats, there was no increase in LEW/N hypothalamic CRH content or CRH release from explanted LEW/N hypothalami in organ culture in response to recombinant interleukin 1 alpha. These data provide strong evidence that the defective LEW/N corticotropin and corticosterone responses to inflammatory and other stress mediators, and the LEW/N susceptibility to experimental arthritis, are due in part to a hypothalamic defect in the synthesis and secretion of CRH. The additional finding of deficient expression in LEW/N rats of the hypothalamic enkephalin gene, which is coordinately regulated with the CRH gene in response to stress, suggests that the primary defect is not in the CRH gene but is instead related to its inappropriate regulation.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                March 2005
                07 March 2005
                : 12
                : 1
                : 20-28
                Department of Physiology and Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
                82361 Neuroimmunomodulation 2005;12:20–28
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 57, Pages: 9
                Original Paper


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