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      Tumeurs Stromales Gastro-Intestinales «GIST»: état des lieux et actualités à travers notre expérience portant sur 54 cas et une Revue de littérature Translated title: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors “GIST”: status and news through our experience on 54 cases and review of literature

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          Abstract

          Les Tumeurs Stromales Gastro-intestinales « GIST » sont une forme très rare de cancers du tube digestif appartenant à la famille des sarcomes. Le but de ce travail est d'établir le profil épidémiologique et évolutif ainsi que les difficultés diagnostique et thérapeutique de cette pathologie maligne prise en charge dans un pays en développement. Une Etude rétrospective étalée sur 8 ans de Janvier 2002 à Mars 2010, a été mené au Service de Radiothérapie et d'Oncologie du CHU de Casablanca (Maroc) ayant colligée 54 cas de tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales. L'âge moyen de nos patients était de 55 ans. Le délai moyen d'évolution était de 11 mois (0-72 mois). La biopsie a permis de confirmer le diagnostic dans 14 cas et la chirurgie dans 40 cas. La principale forme histologique était fusiforme (92,6%). Les GIST dans notre série avaient une taille tumorale moyenne de 12,5 cm avec un C-Kit positif dans 52 cas. Le risque évolutif a pu être établi dans 47 cas dont 39 avaient un risque élevé. La chirurgie était le principal traitement des patients de notre sérieAprès un recul moyen de 31 mois, la moitié des patients évaluables de notre série (n=19) est en rémission complète maintenue, le tiers (n=13) est décédé alors que le quart (n=8) présente une récidive locale et /ou métastatique. Quoique les recommandations soient éditées pour la prise en charge de ces tumeurs, ces dernières soulèvent encore de nombreux problèmes aussi bien diagnostiques que thérapeutiques dans notre contexte.

          Translated abstract

          Tumors Gastrointestinal Stromal “GIST” are a very rare form of digestive tract cancers belonging to the family of sarcomas. The aim of this study is to establish the epidemiological profile, the diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties of this malignancy supported in a developing country. A retrospective study spread over 8 years from January 2002 to March 2010, was conducted at the Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology of Casablanca (Morocco) have collated 54 cases of Gastrointestinal Stromal tumors. The average age of our patients was 55 years. The average time of evolution was 11 months (0-72 months). The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 14 cases and surgery in 40 cases. The main histological form was fusiform (92.6%). GIST in our series had an average tumor size of 12.5 cm with a positive C-Kit in 52 cases. The risk of progression was established in 47 cases of which 39 were high risk. Surgery was the main treatment of patients in our study. After a mean fellow of 31 months, half of evaluable patients in our series (n = 19) is maintained complete remission, one third (n= 13) died while a quarter (n= 8) has a local recurrence and / or metastatic. Although the recommendations are published for the treatment of these tumors, these still present many problems both diagnostic and therapeutic in our context.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A consensus approach.

          As a result of major recent advances in understanding the biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), specifically recognition of the central role of activating KIT mutations and associated KIT protein expression in these lesions, and the development of novel and effective therapy for GISTs using the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI-571, these tumors have become the focus of considerable attention by pathologists, clinicians, and patients. Stromal/mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract have long been a source of confusion and controversy with regard to classification, line(s) of differentiation, and prognostication. Characterization of the KIT pathway and its phenotypic implications has helped to resolve some but not all of these issues. Given the now critical role of accurate and reproducible pathologic diagnosis in ensuring appropriate treatment for patients with GIST, the National Institutes of Health convened a GIST workshop in April 2001 with the goal of developing a consensus approach to diagnosis and morphologic prognostication. Key elements of the consensus, as described herein, are the defining role of KIT immunopositivity in diagnosis and a proposed scheme for estimating metastatic risk in these lesions, based on tumor size and mitotic count, recognizing that it is probably unwise to use the definitive term "benign" for any GIST, at least at the present time. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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            PDGFRA activating mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

            Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have activating mutations in the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase, and most patients with GISTs respond well to Gleevec, which inhibits KIT kinase activity. Here we show that approximately 35% (14 of 40) of GISTs lacking KIT mutations have intragenic activation mutations in the related receptor tyrosine kinase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA). Tumors expressing KIT or PDGFRA oncoproteins were indistinguishable with respect to activation of downstream signaling intermediates and cytogenetic changes associated with tumor progression. Thus, KIT and PDGFRA mutations appear to be alternative and mutually exclusive oncogenic mechanisms in GISTs.
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              Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: the incidence, prevalence, clinical course, and prognostication in the preimatinib mesylate era--a population-based study in western Sweden.

              Recent breakthroughs regarding gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and their pathogenesis have redefined diagnostic criteria and have led to the development of molecularly targeted drug therapy. New treatment options mandate more accurate information regarding the incidence, prevalence, clinical behavior, and prognostic factors of GIST. All patients (n=1460) who potentially had GIST diagnosed from 1983 to 2000 in western Sweden (population, 1.3-1.6 million) were reviewed, and 288 patients with primary GIST were identified. The incidence and prevalence of GIST were determined, and predictive prognostic factors, including current risk-group stratifications, were analyzed statistically. Ninety percent of GISTs were detected clinically due to symptoms (69%) or were incidental findings at surgery (21%); the remaining 10% of GISTs were found at autopsy. Forty-four percent of symptomatic, clinically detected GISTs were categorized as high risk (29%) or overtly malignant (15%), with tumor-related deaths occurring in 63% of patients and 83% of patients, respectively (estimated median survival, of 40 months and 16 months, respectively). Tumor-related deaths occurred in only 2 of 170 of patients (1.2%) with very-low-risk, low-risk, or intermediate-risk tumors. The annual incidence of GIST was 14.5 per million. The prevalence of all GIST risk groups was 129 per million (31 per million for the high-risk group and the overtly malignant group). GIST has been under recognized: Its incidence, prevalence, and clinical aggressiveness also have been underestimated. Currently existing risk-group stratification systems based on tumor size and mitotic rate delineate GIST patients who have a poor prognosis. Prognostication in patients with GIST can be refined using a proposed risk score based solely on tumor size and proliferative index. Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                PAMJ
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                1937-8688
                30 June 2017
                2017
                : 27
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre Mohamed VI de la Lutte contre le Cancer Casablanca, Maroc
                [2 ]Université Mohamed VI des Sciences de la Santé UM6SS, Maroc
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Asmaa Naim, Université Mohamed VI des Sciences de la Santé UM6SS, Maroc
                Article
                PAMJ-27-165
                10.11604/pamj.2017.27.165.7754
                5567940
                © Nezha Taoufiq et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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