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      Activation of Resistance Arteries with Endothelin-1: From Vasoconstriction to Functional Adaptation and Remodeling

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          Abstract

          Remodeling of resistance arteries is a key feature in hypertension. We studied the transition of vasoconstriction to remodeling in isolated rat skeletal muscle arterioles. Arterioles activated with 10 n M endothelin-1 showed functional adaptation when kept at low distension in a wire myograph setup, where contractile properties shifted towards a smaller lumen diameter after 1 day. Pressurized arteries kept in organoid culture showed physical inward remodeling after 3-day activation with 10 n M endothelin-1, characterized by a reduction in relaxed diameter without a change in the wall cross-sectional area (eutrophic remodeling). The relaxed lumen diameter (at 60 mm Hg) decreased from 169 ± 5 (day 0) to 155 ± 4 µm (day 3). An antibody directed to the β<sub>3</sub>-integrin subunit (but not one directed to the β<sub>1</sub>-integrin subunit) enhanced remodeling, from a reduction in relaxed diameter at 60 mm Hg of 15 ± 2.4 to 22 ± 1.8 µm (both on day 3). Collagen gel contraction experiments showed that the antibody directed to the β<sub>3</sub>-integrin subunit enhanced the compaction of collagen by smooth muscle cells, from 83 ± 1.5 to 68 ± 1.5% of the initial gel diameter. In conclusion, these data show that inward eutrophic remodeling is a response to sustained contraction, which may involve collagen reorganization through β<sub>3</sub>-integrins.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Inward Remodeling Follows Chronic Vasoconstriction in Isolated Resistance Arteries

          The hypothesis was tested that chronic vasoconstriction is followed by a structural reduction in lumen diameter, measured at full dilation. An in vitro model of pressurized rat skeletal muscle arterioles was used. During a 3-day experimental period, constriction of active vessels was achieved with fetal calf serum or endothelin-1 (ET-1). Maximal dilation revealed inward remodeling from 179 ± 6.5 µm lumen diameter on day 0 to 151 ± 6.3 µm on day 3 at 75 mm Hg in vessels incubated with serum (n = 8). Similarly, ET-1 induced inward remodeling from 182 ± 5.2 to 164 ± 3.7 µm (n = 6). When constriction during organoid culture was inhibited with papaverin or verapamil, inward remodeling was fully prevented: 184 ± 6.3 to 184 ± 5.8 µm for papaverin (n = 6) and 174 ± 5.5 to 177 ± 7.4 µm for verapamil (n = 6). A chronic reduction in diameter without tone was achieved in vessels that were kept at a low pressure (2–5 mm Hg; n = 6). Here, no remodeling was found, thereby ruling out that a chronic reduction in diameter alone is sufficient for inward remodeling. These data show that a persistent active reduction in lumen diameter is followed by inward remodeling of arterioles.
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            Vasodilatation, not hypotension, improves resistance vessel design during treatment of essential hypertension: a literature survey.

            Correction of structural abnormalities in resistance arteries of patients with essential hypertension is a potential treatment goal, in addition to blood pressure reduction. However, available evidence from human as well as from animal studies indicates that antihypertensive therapy is not always accompanied by normalization of resistance vessel structure, despite normalization of blood pressure. Thus, blood pressure is not the only factor determining resistance vessel structure, and experimental studies show that several factors could play a role, including shear stress and hormonal stimulation. To date, there has been no systematic review of the many published papers which have studied the structural effects of antihypertensive therapy, and it is not known which conditions are best able to normalize resistance vessel structure. We have therefore made a survey of the available literature. The survey shows that change in blood pressure in indeed a poor indicator of change in resistance vessel structure. However, it is a remarkably consistent finding that normalization of resistance vessel structure is obtained with therapeutic regimens which reduce blood pressure by vasodilation rather than by lowering cardiac output Thus, to the extent that normalization of resistance vessel structure is deemed a goal of antihypertensive treatment, the survey points towards the importance of considering not only the treatment effect on blood pressure, but also the haemodynamic effects within patients with essential hypertension.
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              Signal Transduction in Matrix Contraction and the Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Three-Dimensional Matrix

              The interaction of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and extracellular matrix plays important roles in vascular remodeling. We investigated the signaling pathways involved in SMC-induced matrix contraction and SMC migration in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix. Matrix contraction is inhibited by the disruption of actin filaments but not microtubules. Therefore, we investigated the roles of signaling pathways related to actin filaments in matrix contraction. SMC-induced matrix contraction was markedly blocked (–80%) by inhibiting the Rho-p160ROCK pathway and myosin light chain kinase, and was decreased to a lesser extent (30–40%) by a negative mutant of Rac and inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but it was not affected by the inhibition of Ras and Cdc42-Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) pathways. Inhibition of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) decreased SMC-induced matrix contraction by only 15%. The migration speed and persistence of SMCs in the 3D matrix were decreased by the inhibition of p160ROCK, PI 3-kinase, p38 MAPK or WASP to different extents, and p160ROCK inhibitor had the strongest inhibitory effect. Our results suggest that the SMC-induced matrix contraction and the migration of SMCs in 3D matrix share some signaling pathways leading to force generation at cell-matrix adhesions and that various signaling pathways have different relative importance in the regulations of these processes in SMCs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2004
                April 2004
                21 April 2004
                : 41
                : 2
                : 174-182
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark; bDepartment of Medical Physics, Academic Medical Center and Cardiovascular Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                Article
                77288 J Vasc Res 2004;41:174–182
                10.1159/000077288
                15017111
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 31, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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