Background/Aim: Chronic haemodialysis depends on an arteriovenous fistula. Primary failure of vascular access is a common problem which is mainly related to thrombosis. As ambulatory surgery is common, it is mandatory to identify patients with a high thrombophilic risk to allow better prevention (anticoagulation) and direct re-intervention after thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to determine thrombophilic risk factors for primary access failure in order to identify patients at risk before the operation. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on 62 chronic haemodialysis patients who received permanent vascular access. We evaluated established risk factors for chronic access failure as well as the number of earlier shunt operations in these patients. Results: The patients predominantly suffered from auto-immune diseases. The frequency of a successful first vascular access was above average (92.5%). We identified four major risk factors for primary access failure: number of previous vascular access thromboses (p < 0.01; R = 0.96), pre-existing thrombophilic risk factors (p < 0.01), pre-operative fibrinogen (p < 0.02), and vasculitis (p < 0.01). Conclusions: We identified four risk factors which allowed an individual risk evaluation. Among the factors investigated, the activity of the auto-immune disease was the most striking. Our data suggest not to perform a vascular access during an active period of vasculitis.