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      World-wide research architecture of vitamin D research: density-equalizing mapping studies and socio-economic analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Despite the numerous associations of vitamin D with health and disease, vitamin D deficiency is still common from a global perspective. While basic research, clinical and preventive activities grow constantly in vitamin D research, there is no in-depth analysis of the related global scientific productivity available so far.

          Methods

          Density equalizing mapping procedures (DEMP) were combined with socioeconomic benchmarks using the NewQIS platform.

          Results

          A total of 25,992 vitamin D-related research articles were identified between 1900 to 2014 with a significant increase (r 2 = .6541) from 1900 to 2014. Authors located in Northern America – especially in the USA – distributed the majority of global vitamin D research, followed by their Western European counterparts. DEMP-analysis illustrates that Africa and South America exhibit only minor scientific productivity. Among high-income group countries, Scandinavian nations such as Denmark or Finland (2147.9 and 1607.7 vitamin D articles per GDP in 1000 billion USD) were highly active with regard to socioeconomic figures.

          Conclusion

          Networks dedicated to vitamin D research are present around the world. Overall, the Northern American and Western European nations occupy prominent positions. However, South American, African and Asian countries apart from Japan only play a minor role in the global research production related to vitamin D. Since vitamin D deficiency is currently increasing in the Americas, Europe and parts of the Middle East, research in these regions may need to be encouraged.

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          Most cited references 42

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          Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D.

           ,  Andrea R. Josse,  B Dawson (2009)
          This review describes the vitamin D status in different regions of the world with the objective of understanding the scope of hypovitaminosis D and the factors related to its prevalence that may contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Vitamin D status has been linked to the pathogenesis of hip fractures as well as other skeletal and non-skeletal disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide a global perspective of vitamin D status across different regions of the world and to identify the common and significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Six regions of the world were reviewed-Asia, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, North America, and Oceania-through a survey of published literature. The definition of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, as well as assay methodology for 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D, vary between studies. However, serum 25(OH)D levels below 75 nmol/L are prevalent in every region studied whilst levels below 25 nmol/L are most common in regions such as South Asia and the Middle East. Older age, female sex, higher latitude, winter season, darker skin pigmentation, less sunlight exposure, dietary habits, and absence of vitamin D fortification are the main factors that are significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels. Reports from across the world indicate that hypovitaminosis D is widespread and is re-emerging as a major health problem globally.
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            A Controlled Trial to Improve Care for Seriously III Hospitalized Patients

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              Diffusion-based method for producing density equalizing maps

               ,   (2004)
              Map makers have long searched for a way to construct cartograms -- maps in which the sizes of geographic regions such as countries or provinces appear in proportion to their population or some other analogous property. Such maps are invaluable for the representation of census results, election returns, disease incidence, and many other kinds of human data. Unfortunately, in order to scale regions and still have them fit together, one is normally forced to distort the regions' shapes, potentially resulting in maps that are difficult to read. Many methods for making cartograms have been proposed, some of them extremely complex, but all suffer either from this lack of readability or from other pathologies, like overlapping regions or strong dependence on the choice of coordinate axes. Here we present a new technique based on ideas borrowed from elementary physics that suffers none of these drawbacks. Our method is conceptually simple and produces useful, elegant, and easily readable maps. We illustrate the method with applications to the results of the 2000 US presidential election, lung cancer cases in the State of New York, and the geographical distribution of stories appearing in the news.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                prevention@uni-frankfurt.de
                arbmed-klinik@uni-frankfurt.de
                Jenny.Jaque@med.usc.edu
                klingelhoefer@med.uni-frankfurt.de
                bendels@med.uni-frankfurt.de
                ohlendorf@med.uni-frankfurt.de
                quarcoo@med.uni-frankfurt.de
                frank.louwen@kgu.de
                ingles@usc.edu
                wanke@med.uni-frankfurt.de
                +49 (0) 69 6301 6650 , occup-med@uni-frankfurt.de
                Journal
                Nutr J
                Nutr J
                Nutrition Journal
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-2891
                6 January 2018
                6 January 2018
                2018
                : 17
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9721, GRID grid.7839.5, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, , Goethe-University, ; Frankfurt, Germany
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9721, GRID grid.7839.5, Division of Preventive Medicine, , Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe-University, ; Frankfurt, Germany
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, , Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, ; California, Los Angeles USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 6853, GRID grid.42505.36, Department of Preventive Medicine, , University of Southern California, ; Los Angeles, USA
                Article
                313
                10.1186/s12937-018-0313-6
                5756608
                29306332
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                research architecture, density equalizing mapping, vitamin d

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