Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel 1 , * , Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano 2 , Jesús Hernández-Tinoco 2 , Edwin Adiel Calzada-Torres 3 , Sergio Estrada-Martínez 2 , Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos 2 , Raquel Vaquera-Enriquez 4 , Arturo Díaz-Herrera 4 , Raúl Segura-Moreno 4 , María de Lourdes Guerrero-Carbajal 4 , María Guadalupe Rentería-López 4 , Isabel Beristain García 3 , Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez 1 , 5 , Oliver Liesenfeld 6
27 January 2016
Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti- T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti- T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35–5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research.