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      Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Menopause

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          Abstract

          Some symptoms of menopause have also been described in patients with toxoplasmosis. Whether Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection has any influence on clinical manifestations of menopause is yet unknown. We sought to determine whether T. gondii exposure is associated with symptoms and signs of menopause. We performed a cross-sectional study of women attending a public health center in Durango City, Mexico. Participants were examined for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. A questionnaire including 47 symptoms and signs potentially associated with menopause was applied. Association of seroprevalence for T. gondii with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Bivariate analysis showed that bouts of rapid heartbeat, breast pain, electric shock sensation, dizziness, digestive problems, low back pain, and migraine were associated with seropositivity to either IgG anti- T. gondii alone or both IgG and IgM anti- T. gondii. Breast pain was the only variable that was found to be associated with IgG seropositivity to T. gondii by multivariate analysis: (OR = 2.84; 95% CI: 1.35–5.90; P = 0.005). Our results suggest that T. gondii exposure may influence on the clinical manifestations of menopause. Results deserve further research.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Beyond the association. Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and addiction: systematic review and meta-analysis.

          To perform a meta-analysis on studies reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in any psychiatric disorder compared with healthy controls. Our secondary objective was to analyze factors possibly moderating heterogeneity.
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            Perimenopause as a neurological transition state.

            Perimenopause is a midlife transition state experienced by women that occurs in the context of a fully functioning neurological system and results in reproductive senescence. Although primarily viewed as a reproductive transition, the symptoms of perimenopause are largely neurological in nature. Neurological symptoms that emerge during perimenopause are indicative of disruption in multiple estrogen-regulated systems (including thermoregulation, sleep, circadian rhythms and sensory processing) and affect multiple domains of cognitive function. Estrogen is a master regulator that functions through a network of estrogen receptors to ensure that the brain effectively responds at rapid, intermediate and long timescales to regulate energy metabolism in the brain via coordinated signalling and transcriptional pathways. The estrogen receptor network becomes uncoupled from the bioenergetic system during the perimenopausal transition and, as a corollary, a hypometabolic state associated with neurological dysfunction can develop. For some women, this hypometabolic state might increase the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases later in life. The perimenopausal transition might also represent a window of opportunity to prevent age-related neurological diseases. This Review considers the importance of neurological symptoms in perimenopause in the context of their relationship to the network of estrogen receptors that control metabolism in the brain.
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              Ocular toxoplasmosis past, present and new aspects of an old disease.

              Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is considered the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis and is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The resulting vision loss frequently incapacitates patients and places a considerable socio-economic burden on societies in particular in developing countries. Although, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is a world-wide phenomenon stark regional differences with regard to prevalence and presumably route of infection exist. This review will discuss our current clinical understanding of OT including typical and atypical manifestations, patient characteristics which influence the course of disease and treatment options. Even though, congenital and acquired OT are not regarded as separate entities, certain differences exist, which will be assessed and evaluated in detail. A strong focus is laid on the disease causing parasite T. gondii, since solving the mystery of OT aetiology and the development of improved therapies will not be possibly with clinical science alone, but rather requires a precise understanding of parasitological and immunological pathomechanisms. Additionally, the biology and genetics of T. gondii form the foundation for novel and sophisticated diagnostic methods. Scientific advances in the recent years have shed some light on the different role of T. gondii strains with regard to OT manifestation and severity of disease. Genetic and environmental factors influencing OT will be presented and commonalities between OT and toxoplasmic encephalitis will be briefly discussed. Furthermore, the laboratory tools to study OT are crucial in our understanding of OT. In vivo and in vitro experimental approaches will be summarised and evaluated extensively. Finally, a brief outlook is given in which direction OT research should be headed in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                27 January 2016
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 49-55
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                [2 ]Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm,” Juárez University of Durango State . Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Durango, Mexico
                [3 ]Facultad de Enfermería y Obstetricia, Juárez University of Durango State , Cuauhtémoc 223 norte, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [4 ]Health Center No. 2 “Dr. Carlos Santamaría”, Servicios de Salud de Durango , Durango, Mexico, Talpa S/N, 34170 Durango, Mexico
                [5 ]General Hospital, Secretary of Health , Avenida 5 de febrero 220, 34000 Durango, Mexico
                [6 ]Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School , Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, México; 0052-618-8130527; alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com

                ** Current address: Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00050
                4838985
                27141314
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 33, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Article

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