Background/Objective: Calcium loading has been associated with cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, it remains to be elucidated whether alterations of intradialytic calcium buffering add to the increased cardiovascular disease burden in this high-risk population. Methods: Intradialytic calcium kinetics was evaluated in a cross-sectional observational study by measuring dialysate-sided ionized calcium mass balance (iCa<sub>MB</sub>), calcium buffer capacity, and change in serum calcium levels in 40 chronic HD patients during a routine HD session. A dialysate calcium of 3.5 mEq/L was used to adequately challenge calcium buffer mechanisms. Aortic pulse wave velocity and serum osteocalcin levels were measured prior to the HD session. Presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes was assessed. Results: The mean dialysate-sided iCa<sub>MB</sub>, extracellular fluid ionized calcium mass gain, and buffered ionized calcium mass were 469 (±154), 111 (±49), and 358 (±145) mg/HD, respectively. The mean ionized serum calcium increase (∆iCa) was 0.42 (±0.14) mEq/L per HD. The mean intradialytic calcium buffer capacity was 73 (±18)%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant independent association of (1) iCa<sub>MB</sub> with the dialysate-to-blood calcium gradient at HD start and (2) intradialytic calcium buffer capacity with undercarboxylated osteocalcin. The presence of coronary heart disease was associated with higher ∆iCa but not iCa<sub>MB</sub> in the multivariate model. Conclusions: In line with our proof-of-concept study, we provide clinical evidence for a rapidly accessible and exchangeable calcium pool involved in intradialytic calcium regulation and for the role of osteocalcin as a potential biomarker. Our findings argue for evaluating the prognostic potential of intradialytic calcium kinetics in prospective clinical trials.