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      Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: Linkages with Stunting in Rural Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Stunting is a global burden affecting nearly 160 million children younger than five years of age. Whilst the linkages between nutrition and stunting are well recognized, there is a need to explore environmental factors such as water and sanitation, which may influence feeding practices and result in potential infection pathways. This paper explores the linkages between stunting and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) factors in Ethiopia, which is a relatively understudied context. The research draws upon baseline data for children under the age of five from 3200 households across four regions in Ethiopia as part of a wider study and integrated program led by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Using World Health Organization (WHO) z-scoring, the average stunting rate in the sample is 47.5%. This paper also takes into account demographic and social behavioural factors such as the age, gender of children, and gender of the primary caregiver, in addition to handwashing behaviour and drinking water facilities. The evidence recommends efforts to improve handwashing behaviour for mothers and children with a focus on access to clean water. Higher stunting rates with an increase in the age of children highlight the need for continued interventions, as efforts to improve nutrition and WASH behaviours are most effective early on in promoting long-term health outcomes for children.

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          Most cited references41

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          Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries

          The Lancet, 382(9890), 427-451
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            Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                09 October 2019
                October 2019
                : 16
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Civil, Environment and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, London WC1E6BT, UK; c.kwami@ 123456ucl.ac.uk (C.S.K.); h.a.gavilan@ 123456gmail.com (H.G.)
                [2 ]United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Regional Water and Sanitation Advisor for East and Southern Africa, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; sgodfrey@ 123456unicef.org
                [3 ]UCL-Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK; m.lakhanpaul@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                [4 ]Whittington Health NHS Trust, London N19 5NF, UK
                Author notes
                Article
                ijerph-16-03793
                10.3390/ijerph16203793
                6843659
                31600942
                a39d22ee-67fe-4b17-b406-3e2664730cdd
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                stunting,wash,child health,hand-washing,environmental health,clean water,evidence-based policy-making,behaviour change,undernutrition

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