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      Engineering therapeutic antibodies targeting G-protein–coupled receptors

      1 , 1 , *

      Experimental & Molecular Medicine

      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the most attractive therapeutic target classes because of their critical roles in intracellular signaling and their clinical relevance to a variety of diseases, including cancer, infection and inflammation. However, high conformational variability, the small exposed area of extracellular epitopes and difficulty in the preparation of GPCR antigens have delayed both the isolation of therapeutic anti-GPCR antibodies as well as studies on the structure, function and biochemical mechanisms of GPCRs. To overcome the challenges in generating highly specific anti-GPCR antibodies with enhanced efficacy and safety, various forms of antigens have been successfully designed and employed for screening with newly emerged systems based on laboratory animal immunization and high-throughput-directed evolution.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis.

          Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. Tumour cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. Here we report that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 are highly expressed in human breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumours and metastases. Their respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1alpha and CCL21/6Ckine exhibit peak levels of expression in organs representing the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In breast cancer cells, signalling through CXCR4 or CCR7 mediates actin polymerization and pseudopodia formation, and subsequently induces chemotactic and invasive responses. In vivo, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 significantly impairs metastasis of breast cancer cells to regional lymph nodes and lung. Malignant melanoma, which has a similar metastatic pattern as breast cancer but also a high incidence of skin metastases, shows high expression levels of CCR10 in addition to CXCR4 and CCR7. Our findings indicate that chemokines and their receptors have a critical role in determining the metastatic destination of tumour cells.
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            Crystal structure of rhodopsin: A G protein-coupled receptor.

            Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a variety of different external stimuli and activate G proteins. GPCRs share many structural features, including a bundle of seven transmembrane alpha helices connected by six loops of varying lengths. We determined the structure of rhodopsin from diffraction data extending to 2.8 angstroms resolution. The highly organized structure in the extracellular region, including a conserved disulfide bridge, forms a basis for the arrangement of the seven-helix transmembrane motif. The ground-state chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, holds the transmembrane region of the protein in the inactive conformation. Interactions of the chromophore with a cluster of key residues determine the wavelength of the maximum absorption. Changes in these interactions among rhodopsins facilitate color discrimination. Identification of a set of residues that mediate interactions between the transmembrane helices and the cytoplasmic surface, where G-protein activation occurs, also suggests a possible structural change upon photoactivation.
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              The structure and function of G-protein-coupled receptors.

              G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate most of our physiological responses to hormones, neurotransmitters and environmental stimulants, and so have great potential as therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. They are also fascinating molecules from the perspective of membrane-protein structure and biology. Great progress has been made over the past three decades in understanding diverse GPCRs, from pharmacology to functional characterization in vivo. Recent high-resolution structural studies have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms of GPCR activation and constitutive activity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Exp Mol Med
                Exp. Mol. Med
                Experimental & Molecular Medicine
                Nature Publishing Group
                1226-3613
                2092-6413
                February 2016
                05 February 2016
                1 February 2016
                : 48
                : 2
                : e207
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Bio and Nano Chemistry, Kookmin University , Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Bio and Nano Chemistry, Kookmin University , Seoul 136-702, Korea. E-mail: sjung@ 123456kookmin.ac.kr
                Article
                emm2015105
                10.1038/emm.2015.105
                4892866
                26846450
                Copyright © 2016 KSBMB.

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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                Review

                Molecular medicine

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