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      Combined effect of thyme and clove phenolic compounds on Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and biocontrol of black rot disease on cabbage seeds


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          The seed-borne bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) as a causal organism of black rot disease remains the most serious bacterial problem of agricultural production of cruciferous plants worldwide. The eradication of a primary inoculum originating in seeds is available, but no treatment is totally effective. With the threat of developing chemical resistance and increasing pressure for sustainable disease management, biocontrol methods represent one of the main strategies currently applied in agriculture. Natural antimicrobials, including essential oils, are promising tools in disease management with low risks of environmental pollution and impact on human health. Thyme and clove essential oils were demonstrated to be highly effective in Xanthomonas studies in vitro; therefore, their application in black rot control was evaluated in this study. From five phenolic substances originating from thyme and clove essential oils (carvacrol, eugenol, linalool, p-cymene and thymol), the most promising in vitro results were observed with carvacrol, for which 0.0195% led to the death of all Xcc cells in 30 min. Moreover, a synergistic antibacterial effect of carvacrol and thymol solutions decreased the minimal inhibition concentration to 0.0049% and 0.0195% for carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Using the quadruple bactericidal values, the complete elimination of Xcc from the surface of infested cabbage seeds was obtained for both carvacrol and thymol solutions and their combined mixture at 2 MIC value. The elimination of bacterial infection from germinated cabbage plants was observed for both plate counting and quantitative real-time PCR methods. We also evaluated the effect of the application of phenolic treatment on the seed germination and germinated plants. Our results suggest a high potential of the application of carvacrol and thymol in vegetable seed production, specifically for cabbage, thus representing a suitable alternative to cupric derivatives.

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components

            Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.
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              A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol


                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 October 2022
                : 13
                [1] 1Mendeleum – Institute of Genetics, Mendel University in Brno , Brno, Czechia
                [2] 2Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Research Group, Institute of Natural Resource Sciences, Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) , Wädenswil, Switzerland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Nagendran Tharmalingam, Rhode Island Hospital, United States

                Reviewed by: Padmanaban Mohanan, Seoul National University, South Korea; Md Al Mamun, Chonnam National University, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Eliška Hakalová, eliska.hakalova@ 123456mendelu.cz

                This article was submitted to Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2022 Hakalová, Čechová, Tekielska, Eichmeier and Pothier.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 31 July 2022
                : 13 October 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 8, Equations: 2, References: 69, Pages: 14, Words: 10409
                Funded by: Mendel University , doi 10.13039/501100008775;
                Award ID: IGA-ZF/2021-ST2002
                Award ID: CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_025/0007314
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                carvacrol,thymol,killing assay,synergistic antibacterial effect,seed treatment


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