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      Is Open Access

      Pink Cricket Balls Through Rose-Tinted Glasses: Enhancing Interceptive Timing

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      i-Perception

      SAGE Publications

      motion perception, interceptive timing, luminance contrast

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          Abstract

          Cricket is a popular but potentially dangerous sport. It is played with a hard ball that can travel at great speeds. Serious injuries, including fatalities, have occurred when balls have struck participants. The game is traditionally played during daylight with a dark red ball, but recent games have been played during the day and at night using a ‘pink’ ball. We have reported data that seemed to justify concerns raised regarding the visibility of these new pink balls, as they were revealed to have a very low luminance contrast against pertinent backgrounds during twilight. Here, we report on the findings of a psychophysical experiment, wherein we mimicked twilight lighting conditions in an interceptive timing experiment using a pink moving disc as an analogue for pink cricket balls. We show that interceptive timing performance is diminished in conditions that mimic twilight. More importantly, we show that wearing glasses with a rose-tinted filter can alleviate this adverse impact by enhancing the luminance contrast of the pink ‘ball’ relative to pertinent backgrounds.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Human speed perception is contrast dependent.

          When two parallel gratings moving at the same speed are presented simultaneously, the lower-contrast grating appears slower. This misperception is evident across a wide range of contrasts (2.5-50%) and does not appear to saturate (e.g. a 50% contrast grating appears slower than a 70% contrast grating moving at the same speed). On average, a 70% contrast grating must be slowed by 35% to match a 10% contrast grating moving at 2 degrees/sec (N = 6). Furthermore, the effect is largely independent of the absolute contrast level and is a quasi-linear function of log contrast ratio. A preliminary parametric study shows that, although spatial frequency has little effect, relative orientation is important. Finally, the misperception of relative speed appears lessened when the stimuli to be matched are presented sequentially.
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            Perceived velocity of moving chromatic gratings.

            Equiluminous red-green sine-wave gratings were drifted at a uniform rate in the bottom half of a 10-deg field. In the top half of the display was a sinusoidal-luminance grating of the same spatial frequency and 95% contrast that drifted in the opposite direction. Observers, while fixating a point in the display center, adjusted the speed of this upper comparison grating so that it appeared to match the velocity of the chromatic grating below. At low spatial frequencies, equiluminous gratings were appreciably slowed and sometimes stopped even though the individual bars of the grating could be easily resolved. The amount of slowing was proportionally greatest for gratings with slow drift rates. Blue-yellow sine-wave gratings showed similar effects. When luminance contrast was held constant, increasing chrominance modulation caused further decreases in apparent velocity, ruling out the possibility that the slowing was simply due to decreased luminance contrast. Perceived velocity appears to be a weighted average of luminance and chrominance velocity information.
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              Speed can go up as well as down at low contrast: implications for models of motion perception.

              It is well-known that reducing the contrast of a slow moving stimulus reduces its apparent speed. [Thompson, P. (1982). Perceived rate of movement depends on contrast. Vision Research, 22, 377-380.] report of this finding also suggested that at speeds above 8 cycles/s reducing contrast increased perceived speed. However in a later report, Stone and Thompson (1992), using a more rigorous, forced-choice procedure, failed to collect reliable data at these higher speeds. Here, we confirm that faster moving stimuli can appear to move faster than their true speed at low contrasts and we propose a physiologically plausible ratio model that unlike recent Bayesian models (e.g. Weiss, Y., Simoncelli, E. P., & Adelson, E. H. (2002). Motion illusions as optimal percepts. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 598-604) can account well for the results.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Iperception
                Iperception
                IPE
                spipe
                i-Perception
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                2041-6695
                29 November 2017
                Nov-Dec 2017
                : 8
                : 6
                Affiliations
                School of Psychology, The Ringgold 1974, universityUniversity of Queensland; , Brisbane, Australia
                Author notes
                Derek H. Arnold, School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia. Email: d.arnold@ 123456psy.uq.edu.au
                Article
                10.1177_2041669517743991
                10.1177/2041669517743991
                5714085
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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                November-December 2017

                Neurosciences

                luminance contrast, interceptive timing, motion perception

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