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      Kinetics of Water Loss from Cells at Subzero Temperatures and the Likelihood of Intracellular Freezing

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      The Journal of General Physiology

      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          The survival of various cells subjected to low temperature exposure is higher when they are cooled slowly. This increase is consistent with the view that slow cooling decreases the probability of intracellular freezing by permitting water to leave the cell rapidly enough to keep the protoplasm at its freezing point. The present study derives a quantitative relation between the amount of water in a cell and temperature. The relation is a differential equation involving cooling rate, surface-volume ratio, membrane permeability to water, and the temperature coefficient of the permeability constant. Numerical solutions to this equation give calculated water contents which permit predictions as to the likelihood of intracellular ice formation. Both the calculated water contents and the predictions on internal freezing are consistent with the experimental observations of several investigators.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Gen Physiol
          The Journal of General Physiology
          The Rockefeller University Press
          0022-1295
          1540-7748
          1 November 1963
          : 47
          : 2
          : 347-369
          Affiliations
          From the Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge
          Article
          2195343
          14085017
          a3acbbfe-e443-4d85-9f00-d93a939a2d6e
          Copyright ©, 1964, by The Rockefeller Institute Press
          Categories
          Article

          Anatomy & Physiology

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