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      Time Relationship between Circadian Variation of Serum Levels of Leptin, Insulin and Cortisol in Healthy Subjects

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          Abstract

          Background: Leptin is involved in the regulation of eating behavior. Its serum levels are determined by fat mass but a diurnal rhythm is also described. It is not clear whether leptin levels are also controlled in vivo by hormonal stimuli, like insulin or cortisol. Methods and Results: This possible temporal relation was investigated by serial measurements during 24 h (group A) and 46 h (group B) in 15 healthy volunteers and another 10 subjects (group C) while fasting for 72 h. Maximal leptin levels were observed at 4:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. in subjects on a normal diet. During 24 h starvation (group B), there was a 40% decrease of mean leptin concentration when compared to baseline values. In group C, the leptin concentration under starvation dropped to 25% of basal levels after 72 h. Pooled data from group A and the nonfasting data from group B showed an insulin increase preceding leptin increase by 6 h (r = 0.405, p < 0.0001), while cortisol decreased 4 h (r = 0.361, p < 0.001) after leptin decrease. Conclusion: Starvation results in a fall of circulating leptin, ending leptin rhythmicity. Food intake is causally involved in the fluctuation of leptin levels in serum. Presumably this effect is mediated by insulin, while cortisol does not seem to affect leptin release directly in vivo.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Plasma Leptin Levels in Healthy Children and Adolescents: Dependence on Body Mass Index, Body Fat Mass, Gender, Pubertal Stage, and Testosterone

           W F Blum (1997)
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            Effect of Fasting, Refeeding, and Dietary Fat Restriction on Plasma Leptin Levels

             D Weigle (1997)
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              Expression of ob gene in adipose cells. Regulation by insulin.

              The product of the recently cloned mouse obese (ob) gene is likely to play an important role in a loop regulating the size of the adipose tissue mass. The hormonal regulation of the ob gene could affect adiposity. To investigate this point, the effect of insulin on ob gene expression was examined in cells of the 3T3-F442A preadipocyte clonal line. ob mRNA is absent from exponentially growing, undifferentiated cells as well as from confluent preadipose cells. Terminal differentiation of preadipose to adipose cells leads to the expression of ob mRNA detected by a sensitive and quantitative ribonuclease protection assay. In adipose cells, the level of ob mRNA is sensitive to insulin in the nanomolar range of concentrations with an increase from an average of 1 copy to 5-10 copies/cell. The effect of insulin was fully reversible and takes place primarily at a transcriptional level. The ob mRNA shows a rapid turnover, with a half-life of approximately 2 h in the absence or presence of insulin. The level of secreted Ob protein is also regulated by insulin. These results indicate that the ob gene is expressed in mature fat cells only and support the possibility that insulin is an important regulator of ob gene expression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2000
                2000
                22 June 2001
                : 54
                : 4
                : 174-180
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Endocrinology, Medical Clinic, bChildren’s Hospital, and cClinic of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Essen, dChildren’s Hospital, University of Giessen, eLilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, fDepartment of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Marburg, and gChildren’s Hospital, University of Bonn, Germany
                Article
                53255 Horm Res 2000;54:174–180
                10.1159/000053255
                11416234
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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