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      A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil Translated title: Revisão sistemática das características físico-químicas dos poluentes atmosféricos provenientes das queimadas e combustíveis fósseis e efeitos na saúde no Brasil


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          The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

          Translated abstract

          O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar as publicações científicas em relação às características dos poluentes atmosféricos, especialmente material particulado (PM), e os efeitos respiratórios na saúde, segundo diferentes fontes de emissões, no período de 2000 a 2009, no Brasil. Revisão sistemática da literatura realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas. Foram analisadas publicações relacionadas às características físico-químicas dos poluentes, segundo diferentes fontes de emissões e estudos relativos aos efeitos no sistema respiratório. O PM é composto predominantemente de compostos orgânicos e 20% de elementos inorgânicos. Altas concentrações de metais foram identificadas em áreas metropolitanas quando comparadas às regiões de queimadas. O risco relativo de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias em crianças foi superior àqueles encontrados em idosos. Os resultados dos estudos sobre os efeitos da poluição do ar na saúde não devem ser transferidos para áreas com diferentes fontes de emissão.

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          Most cited references125

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          Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States.

          Exposure to fine-particulate air pollution has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, suggesting that sustained reductions in pollution exposure should result in improved life expectancy. This study directly evaluated the changes in life expectancy associated with differential changes in fine particulate air pollution that occurred in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. We compiled data on life expectancy, socioeconomic status, and demographic characteristics for 211 county units in the 51 U.S. metropolitan areas with matching data on fine-particulate air pollution for the late 1970s and early 1980s and the late 1990s and early 2000s. Regression models were used to estimate the association between reductions in pollution and changes in life expectancy, with adjustment for changes in socioeconomic and demographic variables and in proxy indicators for the prevalence of cigarette smoking. A decrease of 10 microg per cubic meter in the concentration of fine particulate matter was associated with an estimated increase in mean (+/-SE) life expectancy of 0.61+/-0.20 year (P=0.004). The estimated effect of reduced exposure to pollution on life expectancy was not highly sensitive to adjustment for changes in socioeconomic, demographic, or proxy variables for the prevalence of smoking or to the restriction of observations to relatively large counties. Reductions in air pollution accounted for as much as 15% of the overall increase in life expectancy in the study areas. A reduction in exposure to ambient fine-particulate air pollution contributed to significant and measurable improvements in life expectancy in the United States. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

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              Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project.

              We present the results of the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach 2 (APHEA2) project on short-term effects of ambient particles on mortality with emphasis on effect modification. We used daily measurements for particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and/or black smoke from 29 European cities. We considered confounding from other pollutants as well as meteorologic and chronologic variables. We investigated several variables describing the cities' pollution, climate, population, and geography as potential effect modifiers. For the individual city analysis, generalized additive models extending Poisson regression, using a smoother to control for seasonal patterns, were applied. To provide quantitative summaries of the results and explain remaining heterogeneity, we applied second-stage regression models. The estimated increase in the daily number of deaths for all ages for a 10 microg/m3 increase in daily PM10 or black smoke concentrations was 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.4-0.8%], whereas for the elderly it was slightly higher. We found important effect modification for several of the variables studied. Thus, in a city with low average NO2, the estimated increase in daily mortality for an increase of 10 microg/m3 in PM10 was 0.19 (95% CI = 0.00-0.41), whereas in a city with high average NO2 it was 0.80% (95% CI = 0.67-0.93%); in a relatively cold climate the corresponding effect was 0.29% (95% CI = 0.16-0.42), whereas in a warm climate it was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.69-0.96); in a city with low standardized mortality rate it was 0.80% (95% CI = 0.65-0.95%), and in one with a high rate it was 0.43% (95% CI = 0.24-0.62). Our results confirm those previously reported on the effects of ambient particles on mortality. Furthermore, they show that the heterogeneity found in the effect parameters among cities reflects real effect modification, which is explained by specific city characteristics.

                Author and article information

                Cadernos de Saúde Pública
                Cad. Saúde Pública
                Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                September 2011
                : 27
                : 9
                : 1678-1698
                [02] Cuiabá orgnameUniversidade do Estado de Mato Grosso Brasil
                [01] Rio de Janeiro orgnameEscola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca orgdiv1Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Brasil
                S0102-311X2011000900003 S0102-311X(11)02700903

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 19 April 2011
                : 11 June 2010
                : 26 April 2011
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 125, Pages: 21

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                Poluentes Ambientais,Respiratory Tract Diseases,Particulate Matter,Air Pollutants,Environmental Pollutants,Doenças Respiratórias,Material Particulado,Poluentes do Ar


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