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      Violência conjugal física contra a mulher na vida: prevalência e impacto imediato na saúde, trabalho e família Translated title: Life-long domestic violence against women: prevalence and immediate impact on health, work, and family

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência de violência conjugal física contra a mulher ao longo da vida (VCFM) em uma comunidade urbana de baixa renda e avaliar o seu impacto imediato na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo de corte transversal foi realizado em Embu, Estado de São Paulo, como componente do projeto multicêntrico internacional World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE). Foi utilizada uma amostra probabilística de conglomerados derivados de setores censitários, incluindo todos os domicílios elegíveis identificados em cada um deles. Participaram 784 mulheres (16 a 49 anos) com pelo menos um filho menor de 18 anos e marido/companheiro residente (ao longo da vida). Foi avaliada a ocorrência de algum tipo de VCFM (tapa, chute, soco, espancamento, uso/ameaça de uso de arma, outras agressões físicas espontaneamente referidas), de VCFM grave (mesmos itens, exceto tapa e outras agressões referidas) e de impactos imediatos na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar das vítimas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de VCFM foi de 26,0% para algum tipo de violência e de 18,5% para violência grave. Entre as vítimas de algum tipo de VFCM, 38,7% julgaram necessitar cuidados médicos, 4,4% foram hospitalizadas, 18,1% ficaram incapacitadas para o trabalho (remunerado ou doméstico), 51,5% separaram-se devido às agressões e 66,7% tiveram filhos testemunhando a violência. Para a violência grave, essas taxas foram de 51,0, 5,5, 23,4, 59,3 e 75,9%, respectivamente. A vergonha e o medo de represália por parte do companheiro dificultaram o acesso à assistência médica. CONCLUSÕES: A VCFM é frequente na comunidade estudada e produz impactos imediatos na saúde, trabalho e vida familiar das vítimas. Esses impactos diminuem a capacidade da vítima de buscar socorro e dificultam a interrupção do ciclo da violência.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVES: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of domestic violence against women (DVAW) in a low-income urban community and evaluate the immediate impact of DVAW on health, work, and family life. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Embu (state of São Paulo, Brazil) as part of an international multicenter project (World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment, WorldSAFE). A probabilistic sample of census sector-based clusters including all eligible households identified was used. A total of 784 women (age 16-49 years) with at least one child younger than 18 years and a lifetime resident husband/partner were included. We evaluated the occurrence of any kind of DVAW (slapping, kicking, hitting, beating, threatening to use or using a weapon, other aggressions mentioned spontaneously), of severe DVAW (same items, except slapping and other aggressions informed spontaneously), and of immediate impacts on the health, work, and family of the victims. RESULTS: The prevalence of DVAW was 26.0% for any kind of violence and 18.5% for severe DVAW. Among the victims of any kind of DVAW, 38.7% judged that they needed medical care, 4.4% were hospitalized, 18.1% were incapacitated for work (paid work or household chores), 51.5% left their partner due to the aggression and 66.7% had children who witnessed the violence. For severe violence, these rates were 51.0, 5.5, 23.4, 59.3 and 75.9%, respectively. Shame and fear of retaliation obstructed access to medical care. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of DVAW is high in the studied community and produces immediate impacts on the victim's health, work, and family life. These impacts decrease the victim's ability to look for help and hinder the breaking of the cycle of violence.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Health consequences of intimate partner violence.

          Intimate partner violence, which describes physical or sexual assault, or both, of a spouse or sexual intimate, is a common health-care issue. In this article, I have reviewed research on the mental and physical health sequelae of such violence. Increased health problems such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are well documented by controlled research in abused women in various settings. Intimate partner violence has been noted in 3-13% of pregnancies in many studies from around the world, and is associated with detrimental outcomes to mothers and infants. I recommend increased assessment and interventions for intimate partner violence in health-care settings.
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            Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention.

             Rachel Jewkes (2002)
            Unlike many health problems, there are few social and demographic characteristics that define risk groups for intimate partner violence. Poverty is the exception and increases risk through effects on conflict, women's power, and male identity. Violence is used as a strategy in conflict. Relationships full of conflict, and especially those in which conflicts occur about finances, jealousy, and women's gender role transgressions are more violent than peaceful relationships. Heavy alcohol consumption also increases risk of violence. Women who are more empowered educationally, economically, and socially are most protected, but below this high level the relation between empowerment and risk of violence is non-linear. Violence is frequently used to resolve a crisis of male identity, at times caused by poverty or an inability to control women. Risk of violence is greatest in societies where the use of violence in many situations is a socially-accepted norm. Primary preventive interventions should focus on improving the status of women and reducing norms of violence, poverty, and alcohol consumption.
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              Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Alagoas Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rpsp
                Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Washington )
                1020-4989
                April 2010
                : 27
                : 4
                : 300-308
                S1020-49892010000400009
                10.1590/s1020-49892010000400009

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Public Health
                Categories
                Health Policy & Services

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