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      Development of Bubble Characteristics on Chute Spillway Bottom

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      Water

      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Chute aerators introduce a large air discharge through air supply ducts to prevent cavitation erosion on spillways. There is not much information on the microcosmic air bubble characteristics near the chute bottom. This study was focused on examining the bottom air-water flow properties by performing a series of model tests that eliminated the upper aeration and illustrated the potential for bubble variation processes on the chute bottom. In comparison with the strong air detrainment in the impact zone, the bottom air bubble frequency decreased slightly. Observations showed that range of probability of the bubble chord length tended to decrease sharply in the impact zone and by a lesser extent in the equilibrium zone. A distinct mechanism to control the bubble size distribution, depending on bubble diameter, was proposed. For bubbles larger than about 1–2 mm, the bubble size distribution followed a—5/3 power-law scaling with diameter. Using the relationship between the local dissipation rate and bubble size, the bottom dissipation rate was found to increase along the chute bottom, and the corresponding Hinze scale showed a good agreement with the observations.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves.

          Breaking ocean waves entrain air bubbles that enhance air-sea gas flux, produce aerosols, generate ambient noise and scavenge biological surfactants. The size distribution of the entrained bubbles is the most important factor in controlling these processes, but little is known about bubble properties and formation mechanisms inside whitecaps. We have measured bubble size distributions inside breaking waves in the laboratory and in the open ocean, and provide a quantitative description of bubble formation mechanisms in the laboratory. We find two distinct mechanisms controlling the size distribution, depending on bubble size. For bubbles larger than about 1 mm, turbulent fragmentation determines bubble size distribution, resulting in a bubble density proportional to the bubble radius to the power of -10/3. Smaller bubbles are created by jet and drop impact on the wave face, with a -3/2 power-law scaling. The length scale separating these processes is the scale where turbulent fragmentation ceases, also known as the Hinze scale. Our results will have important implications for the study of air-sea gas transfer.
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            Interaction of cavitation bubbles with a free surface

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              On the breakup of an air bubble injected into a fully developed turbulent flow. Part 1. Breakup frequency

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                WATEGH
                Water
                Water
                MDPI AG
                2073-4441
                September 2018
                August 24 2018
                : 10
                : 9
                : 1129
                Article
                10.3390/w10091129
                © 2018
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/10/9/1129

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