Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological dysfunction in the neonatal period. Neonatal seizure patterns and short-term neurologic outcomes, particularly in the Ethiopian context, have not been adequately studied.
The main aim of this study is to assess the pattern, probable etiology, short-term outcomes, and determinants of neonatal seizures in the neonatal intensive care unit of Gondar University Specialized Comprehensive Hospital.
A hospital-based prospective observational cohort study was conducted from October 1, 2016, to September 30, 2018.
Among the 117 neonates enrolled, the most common type of neonatal seizure was subtle (60.6%), followed by tonic (15.4%), and clonic (12.8%) seizures. The most common etiology for the seizure was perinatal asphyxia (PNA) with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE; 74.4%) followed by electrolyte disturbances (12.8%). In the follow-up, 23 (19.7%) died during the acute neonatal illness. The most common cause of death was PNA with HIE, accounting for 73.9% of the deaths. Among the surviving newborns, 10 (10.6%) had neurodevelopmental deficits at discharge. Being a multiparous mother (OR= 0.172; 95% CI: 0.033, 0.880), being female (OR= 0.171; 95% CI: 0.055, 0.538), and having tonic (OR= 0.164; 95% CI: 0.030, 0.885) and myoclonic seizures (OR= 0.040; 95% CI: 0.055, 0.538) were significantly associated with mortality poor short-term outcome.