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      Long term outcome of Aldosteronism after target treatments

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          Abstract

          There exists a great knowledge gap in terms of long-term effects of various surgical and pharmacological treatments on outcomes among primary aldosteronism (PA) patients. Using a validated algorithm, we extracted longitudinal data for all PA patients diagnosed in 1997–2010 and treated in the Taiwan National Health Insurance. We identified 3362 PA patients for whom the mean length of follow-up was 5.75 years. PA has higher major cardiovascular events (MACE) than essential hypertension (23.3% vs 19.3%, p = 0.015). Results from the Cox model suggest a strong effect of adrenalectomy on lowering mortality (HR = 0.23 with residual hypertension and 0.21 with resolved hypertension). While need for receptor antagonist (MRA) MRA after diagnosis suggests that a defined daily dose (DDD) of MRA between 12.5 and 50 mg may alleviate risk of death in a U-shape pattern. A specificity test identified patients who has aldosterone producing adenoma (HR = 0.50, p = 0.005) also confirmed adrenalectomy attenuated all-cause mortality. Adrenalectomy decreases long-term all-cause mortality independently from PA cure from hypertension. Prescription corresponding to a DDD between 12.5 and 50 mg may decrease mortality for patients needing MRA. It calls for more attention on early diagnosis, early treatment and prescription of appropriate dosage of MRA for PA patients.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs.

          In the hierarchy of research designs, the results of randomized, controlled trials are considered to be evidence of the highest grade, whereas observational studies are viewed as having less validity because they reportedly overestimate treatment effects. We used published meta-analyses to identify randomized clinical trials and observational studies that examined the same clinical topics. We then compared the results of the original reports according to the type of research design. A search of the Medline data base for articles published in five major medical journals from 1991 to 1995 identified meta-analyses of randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of either cohort or case-control studies that assessed the same intervention. For each of five topics, summary estimates and 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated on the basis of data from the individual randomized, controlled trials and the individual observational studies. For the five clinical topics and 99 reports evaluated, the average results of the observational studies were remarkably similar to those of the randomized, controlled trials. For example, analysis of 13 randomized, controlled trials of the effectiveness of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine in preventing active tuberculosis yielded a relative risk of 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.70) among vaccinated patients, as compared with an odds ratio of 0.50 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.65) from 10 case-control studies. In addition, the range of the point estimates for the effect of vaccination was wider for the randomized, controlled trials (0.20 to 1.56) than for the observational studies (0.17 to 0.84). The results of well-designed observational studies (with either a cohort or a case-control design) do not systematically overestimate the magnitude of the effects of treatment as compared with those in randomized, controlled trials on the same topic.
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            Validation of the National Health Insurance Research Database with ischemic stroke cases in Taiwan.

            The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) is commonly used for pharmacoepidemiological research in Taiwan. This study evaluated the validity of the database for patients with a principal diagnosis of ischemic stroke. This cross-sectional study compares records in the NHIRD with those in one medical center. Patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke in 1999 were identified from both databases. The discharge notes, laboratory data, and medication orders during admission and the first discharge visit were reviewed to validate ischemic stroke diagnoses and aspirin prescribing in the NHIRD. Agreement between the two databases in comorbidities of ischemic stroke diagnosis was evaluated using ICD-9 codes. Three hundred and seventy two cases were identified from the NHIRD; among them, 364 cases (97.85%) were confirmed as ischemic stroke by radiology examination and clinical presentation. Among these confirmed cases, 344 (94.51%) were assigned 'ischemic stroke' as the principal diagnosis in the NHIRD. The overall agreement of comorbid diagnoses between the databases was 48.39%. The PPV for selected conditions also varied widely, from 0.50 for fracture to 1.00 for colon cancer. The accuracy of recorded aspirin prescriptions was higher in first post-discharge visits (PPV = 0.94) than during hospitalization (PPV = 0.88). The accuracy of the NHIRD in recording ischemic stroke diagnoses and aspirin prescriptions was high, and the NHIRD appears to be a valid resource for population research in ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Case detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

              Our objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary aldosteronism. The Task Force comprised a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee (CGS) of The Endocrine Society, six additional experts, one methodologist, and a medical writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Systematic reviews of available evidence were used to formulate the key treatment and prevention recommendations. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) group criteria to describe both the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations. We used "recommend" for strong recommendations and "suggest" for weak recommendations. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during one group meeting, several conference calls, and multiple e-mail communications. The drafts prepared by the task force with the help of a medical writer were reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's CGS, Clinical Affairs Core Committee (CACC), and Council. The version approved by the CGS and CACC was placed on The Endocrine Society's Web site for comments by members. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. We recommend case detection of primary aldosteronism be sought in higher risk groups of hypertensive patients and those with hypokalemia by determining the aldosterone-renin ratio under standard conditions and that the condition be confirmed/excluded by one of four commonly used confirmatory tests. We recommend that all patients with primary aldosteronism undergo adrenal computed tomography as the initial study in subtype testing and to exclude adrenocortical carcinoma. We recommend the presence of a unilateral form of primary aldosteronism should be established/excluded by bilateral adrenal venous sampling by an experienced radiologist and, where present, optimally treated by laparoscopic adrenalectomy. We recommend that patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, or those unsuitable for surgery, optimally be treated medically by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                02 September 2016
                2016
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital , Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of internal medicine, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation , Taipei, Taiwan
                [4 ]Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine and Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic , USA
                [5 ]Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes , No. 35, Keyan Road, Zhunan 350, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Article
                srep32103
                10.1038/srep32103
                5009379
                27586402
                Copyright © 2016, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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