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      Impact of CYP2C19 variant genotypes on clinical efficacy of antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel: systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Objective To evaluate the accumulated information from genetic association studies investigating the impact of variants of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype on the clinical efficacy of clopidogrel.

          Design Systematic review and meta-analysis with a structured search algorithm and prespecified eligibility criteria for retrieval of relevant studies; dominant genetic model assumptions and quantitative methods for calculating summary effect estimates from study level odds ratios; systematic assessment of bias within and between studies; and grading of the cumulative evidence by consensus criteria.

          Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, online databases, contents pages and bibliographies of general medical, cardiovascular, pharmacological, and genetic journals.

          Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Original full length reports assessing the cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events or stent thrombosis over a follow-up period of at least a month in association with carrier status for the loss of function or gain of function CYP2C19 allele in adult patients with coronary artery disease and a clinical presentation of acute coronary syndrome or stable angina pectoris who were taking clopidogrel.

          Results 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The random effects summary odds ratio for stent thrombosis in carriers of at least one CYP2C19 loss of function allele versus non-carriers combining nine studies was 1.77 (95% confidence interval 1.31 to 2.40; P<0.001). This nominally significant odds ratio was subject to considerable bias across the studies (small study effect bias and replication diversity). The adjustment for these quality modifiers tended to abolish the association. The corresponding random effects summary odds ratio of major adverse cardiovascular events for 12 studies combined was 1.11 (0.89 to 1.39; P=0.36). The random effects summary odds ratio of stent thrombosis in carriers versus non-carriers of at least one CYP2C19*17 gain of function allele for three studies combined was 0.99 (0.60 to 1.62; P=0.96), and the corresponding odds ratio of major adverse cardiovascular events in five studies was 0.93 (0.75 to 1.14; P=0.48). The overall quality of epidemiological evidence was graded as low, which excludes reliable clinical assessments.

          Conclusions Accumulated information from genetic association studies does not indicate a substantial or consistent influence of CYP2C19 gene polymorphisms on the clinical efficacy of clopidogrel. The current evidence does not support the use of individualised antiplatelet regimens guided by CYP2C19 genotype.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy.

          Clopidogrel therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes and following percutaneous coronary intervention by inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent platelet activation. However, nonresponsiveness is widely recognized and is related to recurrent ischemic events. To identify gene variants that influence clopidogrel response. In the Pharmacogenomics of Antiplatelet Intervention (PAPI) Study (2006-2008), we administered clopidogrel for 7 days to 429 healthy Amish persons and measured response by ex vivo platelet aggregometry. A genome-wide association study was performed followed by genotyping the loss-of-function cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19*2 variant (rs4244285). Findings in the PAPI Study were extended by examining the relation of CYP2C19*2 genotype to platelet function and cardiovascular outcomes in an independent sample of 227 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel treatment and cardiovascular events. Platelet response to clopidogrel was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.73; P < .001). Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 10q24 within the CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8 cluster were associated with diminished clopidogrel response, with a high degree of statistical significance (P = 1.5 x 10(-13) for rs12777823, additive model). The rs12777823 polymorphism was in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CYP2C19*2 variant, and was associated with diminished clopidogrel response, accounting for 12% of the variation in platelet aggregation to ADP (P = 4.3 x 10(-11)). The relation between CYP2C19*2 genotype and platelet aggregation was replicated in clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing coronary intervention (P = .02). Furthermore, patients with the CYP2C19*2 variant were more likely (20.9% vs 10.0%) to have a cardiovascular ischemic event or death during 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.99; P = .02). CYP2C19*2 genotype was associated with diminished platelet response to clopidogrel treatment and poorer cardiovascular outcomes.
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            Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events.

            Pharmacogenetic determinants of the response of patients to clopidogrel contribute to variability in the biologic antiplatelet activity of the drug. The effect of these determinants on clinical outcomes after an acute myocardial infarction is unknown. We consecutively enrolled 2208 patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction in a nationwide French registry and receiving clopidogrel therapy. We then assessed the relation of allelic variants of genes modulating clopidogrel absorption (ABCB1), metabolic activation (CYP3A5 and CYP2C19), and biologic activity (P2RY12 and ITGB3) to the risk of death from any cause, nonfatal stroke, or myocardial infarction during 1 year of follow-up. Death occurred in 225 patients, and nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke in 94 patients, during the follow-up period. None of the selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5, P2RY12, or ITGB3 were associated with a risk of an adverse outcome. Patients with two variant alleles of ABCB1 (TT at nucleotide 3435) had a higher rate of cardiovascular events at 1 year than those with the ABCB1 wild-type genotype (CC at nucleotide 3435) (15.5% vs. 10.7%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 2.47). Patients carrying any two CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2, *3, *4, or *5), had a higher event rate than patients with none (21.5% vs. 13.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.58). Among the 1535 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention during hospitalization, the rate of cardiovascular events among patients with two CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles was 3.58 times the rate among those with none (95% CI, 1.71 to 7.51). Among patients with an acute myocardial infarction who were receiving clopidogrel, those carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles had a higher rate of subsequent cardiovascular events than those who were not. This effect was particularly marked among the patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00673036.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: research associate
                Role: research associate
                Role: group leader
                Role: director
                Role: director
                Role: group leader
                Journal
                BMJ
                bmj
                BMJ : British Medical Journal
                BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
                0959-8138
                1468-5833
                2011
                2011
                04 August 2011
                : 343
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany
                [2 ]Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, St Antonius Hospital Nieuwegein, Nieuwegein, Netherlands
                [4 ]UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA
                [5 ]Woodfield Clinical Consulting LLC, Green Valley, AZ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: D Taubert dirk.taubert@ 123456medizin.uni-koeln.de
                Article
                baut857730
                10.1136/bmj.d4588
                3191560
                21816733
                © Bauer et al 2011

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/ and http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/legalcode.

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                Categories
                Research
                Quantitative Research
                Molecular Genetics
                Drugs: Cardiovascular System
                Ischaemic Heart Disease
                Venous Thromboembolism
                Internet

                Medicine

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