The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been known as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO) worldwide. The drugs currently used for treatment of COVID-19 are often selected and tested based on their effectiveness in other diseases such as influenza and AIDS and their major identified targets are viral protease, host cell produced protease, viral RNA polymerase, and the interaction site of viral protein with host cell receptors. Until now, there are no approved therapeutic drugs for definitive treatment of this dangerous disease.
In this article, all of the documentary information, such as clinical trials, original research and reviews, government’s database, and treatment guidelines, were reviewed critically and comprehensively. Moreover, it was attempted to present the most common and effective drugs and strategies, to suggest the possible treatment way of COVID19 by focusing on the body’s defense mechanism against pathogens.
Antiviral drugs and immune-modulatory agents with the traditional medicines using the natural compound are usual accessible treatments. Accordingly, they have better beneficence due to the large existence studies, long time follow-ups, proximity to the natural system, and the normal physiological routine of the pathogen and host interactions. Besides, the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways are considered as attractive targets to treat human immune, infectious, and cancerous diseases. Fluoxetine, as a host-targeted small molecule with immunomodulatory action, may be known as effective drug for treatment and prevention of COVID19 disease, in combination with antiviral drugs and natural compounds.
Co-administration of fluoxetine in the treatment of COVID19 could be considered due to the possibility of its interaction with ACE2 receptors, immune-modulatory function, and a proper immune response at the right time. Fluoxetine plays a beneficial role in reducing stress due to fear of infecting by COVID19 or worsening the disease and psychological support for the affected patients.