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      The Current Recommended Drugs and Strategies for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

      1 , 2

      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management

      Dove

      COVID-19, clinical trials, therapeutic drugs, immunomodulatory, fluoxetine

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          Abstract

          Background

          The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been known as a pandemic disease by the World Health Organization (WHO) worldwide. The drugs currently used for treatment of COVID-19 are often selected and tested based on their effectiveness in other diseases such as influenza and AIDS and their major identified targets are viral protease, host cell produced protease, viral RNA polymerase, and the interaction site of viral protein with host cell receptors. Until now, there are no approved therapeutic drugs for definitive treatment of this dangerous disease.

          Methods

          In this article, all of the documentary information, such as clinical trials, original research and reviews, government’s database, and treatment guidelines, were reviewed critically and comprehensively. Moreover, it was attempted to present the most common and effective drugs and strategies, to suggest the possible treatment way of COVID19 by focusing on the body’s defense mechanism against pathogens.

          Results

          Antiviral drugs and immune-modulatory agents with the traditional medicines using the natural compound are usual accessible treatments. Accordingly, they have better beneficence due to the large existence studies, long time follow-ups, proximity to the natural system, and the normal physiological routine of the pathogen and host interactions. Besides, the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways are considered as attractive targets to treat human immune, infectious, and cancerous diseases. Fluoxetine, as a host-targeted small molecule with immunomodulatory action, may be known as effective drug for treatment and prevention of COVID19 disease, in combination with antiviral drugs and natural compounds.

          Conclusion

          Co-administration of fluoxetine in the treatment of COVID19 could be considered due to the possibility of its interaction with ACE2 receptors, immune-modulatory function, and a proper immune response at the right time. Fluoxetine plays a beneficial role in reducing stress due to fear of infecting by COVID19 or worsening the disease and psychological support for the affected patients.

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          Most cited references 97

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

            Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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              SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor

              Summary The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                tcrm
                tcriskman
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                07 October 2020
                2020
                : 16
                : 933-946
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran , Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Microbiology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mojgan Sheikhpour Tel +98-9122969712Fax +98 21 64112313 Email mshaikhpoor@gmail.com
                Article
                262936
                10.2147/TCRM.S262936
                7548336
                © 2020 Sheikhpour.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 97, Pages: 14
                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                fluoxetine, immunomodulatory, therapeutic drugs, clinical trials, covid-19

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