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      An Oral Adsorbent Downregulates Renal Expression of Genes That Promote Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis in Diabetic Rats

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: An oral adsorbent, AST-120, removes uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate, and delays the progression of renal failure. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AST-120 on the molecular basis of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Methods: Four weeks after unilateral nephrectomy, the uninephrectomized OLETF (1/2NxOLETF) rats were divided into two groups: AST-120-administered and control 1/2NxOLETF rats. After the administration of AST-120 for 48 weeks, we examined the effects of AST-120 on renal functional, pathological, and gene expressional changes. Results: The administration of AST-120 to the 1/2NxOLETF rats attenuated the progression of renal dysfunction, proteinuria, glomerular sclerosis, tubular injury, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. AST-120 significantly reduced renal expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, osteopontin, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, as well as clusterin. All the five molecules were expressed mainly in tubular cells. AST-120 also decreased serum and urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate and the overload of indoxyl sulfate in tubular cells. Conclusion: AST-120 ameliorates tubulointerstitial injury by reducing renal expression of ICAM-1, osteopontin, MCP-1, TGF-β1 and clusterin in 1/2NxOLETF rats.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Renal disease and hypertension in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

            Recent epidemiologic data demonstrate a dramatic increase in the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), thus dispelling the mistaken belief that renal prognosis is benign in NIDDM. Currently, the leading cause of ESRD in the United States, Japan, and in most industrialized Europe is NIDDM, accounting for nearly 90% of all cases of diabetes. In addition to profound economic costs, patients with NIDDM and diabetic nephropathy have a dramatically increased morbidity and premature mortality. NIDDM-related nephropathy varies widely among racial and ethnic groups, genders and lifestyles; and gender may interact with race to affect the disease progression. While the course of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) progresses through well-defined stages, the natural history of NIDDM is less well characterized. NIDDM patients with coronary heart disease have a higher urinary albumin excretion rate at the time of diagnosis and follow-up. This greater risk may also be associated with hypertension and hyperlipidemia, and genes involved in blood pressure are obvious candidate genes for diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia appears to be an important factor in the development of proteinuria in NIDDM, but its role and the influence of diet are not yet clear. Tobacco smoking can also be deleterious to the diabetic patient, and is also associated with disease progression. Maintaining euglycemia, stopping smoking and controlling blood pressure may prevent or slow the progression of NIDDM-related nephropathy and reduce extrarenal injury. Treatment recommendations include early screening for hyperlipidemia, appropriate exercise and a healthy diet. Cornerstones of management should also include: (1) educating the medical community and more widely disseminating data supporting the value of early treatment of microalbuminuria; (2) developing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary team approach that involves physicians, nurses, diabetes educators and behavioral therapists; and (3) intensifying research in this field.
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              Oral Adsorbent AST-120 Ameliorates Interstitial Fibrosis and Transforming Growth Factor-β 1 Expression in Spontaneously Diabetic (OLETF) Rats

              Diabetic nephropathy is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. The administration of an oral adsorbent, AST-120, prevents the progression of chronic renal failure in uremic rats and undialyzed uremic patients. This study was designed to determine if AST-120 slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus. At 21 weeks of age the OLETF rats were divided into 2 groups: AST-120-administered OLETF rats (n = 7), and control OLETF rats (n = 7). LETO rats, which are genetically similar to the OLETF rats but not diabetic, were also included. After the oral administration of AST-120 for 65 weeks, renal function and pathological changes were investigated in the 3 groups. The administration of AST-120 to the OLETF rats attenuated the progression of glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, tubular injury as well as renal dysfunction, and reduced the serum and urinary levels of indoxyl sulfate. Furthermore, AST-120 administration reduced the interstitial expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, as well as interstitial infiltration of macrophages. The TGF-β 1 -stained interstitial area showed positive correlations with the interstitial fibrosis area, the number of TIMP-1-positive cells, and the number of macrophages, and showed a negative correlation with creatinine clearance. In conclusion, AST-120 reduced the interstitial expression of TGF-β 1 and TIMP-1, and the interstitial infiltration of macrophages, and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy in OLETF rats.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                September 2002
                26 September 2002
                : 92
                : 3
                : 635-651
                Affiliations
                Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan
                Article
                64108 Nephron 2002;92:635–651
                10.1159/000064108
                12372949
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 56, Pages: 17
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64108
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