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      Transcriptome profiling of dorsal root ganglia in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome type-I reveals potential mechanisms involved in pain

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          Purpose: Complex regional pain syndrome type-I (CRPS-I) is a progressive and devastating pain condition, which remains clinically challenging. The mechanisms of CRPS-I still remain largely unknown. We aim to identify transcriptome profiles of genes relevant to pain mechanisms and major pathways involved in CRPS-I.

          Methods: A rat model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was established to mimic CRPS-I. RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to profile transcriptome of L4-6 dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of a rat model of CRPS-I.

          Results: CPIP model rats developed persistent mechanical/thermal hyperalgesia in ipsilateral hind paw. RNA-Seq identified a total of 295 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 195 up- and 100 downregulated, in ipsilateral DRGs of CPIP rats compared with sham rats. The expression of several representative genes was confirmed by qPCR. Functional analysis of DEGs revealed that the most significant enriched biological processes of upregulated genes include response to lipopolysaccharide, inflammatory response and cytokine activity, which are all important mechanisms mediating pain. We further screened DEGs implicated in pain progress, genes enriched in small- to medium-sized sensory neurons and enriched in TRPV1-lineage nociceptors. By comparing our dataset with other published datasets of neuropathic or inflammatory pain models, we identified a core set of genes and pathways that extensively participate in CPIP and other neuropathic pain states.

          Conclusion: Our study identified transcriptome gene changes in DRGs of an animal model of CRPS-I and could provide insights into identifying promising genes or pathways that can be potentially targeted to ameliorate CRPS-I.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Transient receptor potential A1 is a sensory receptor for multiple products of oxidative stress.

          Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it acts as a sensor for environmental irritants, including acrolein, and some pungent plant ingredients such as allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde. These exogenous compounds activate TRPA1 by covalent modification of cysteine residues. We have used electrophysiological methods and measurements of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) to show that TRPA1 is activated by several classes of endogenous thiol-reactive molecules. TRPA1 was activated by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); EC(50), 230 microM), by endogenously occurring alkenyl aldehydes (EC(50): 4-hydroxynonenal 19.9 microM, 4-oxo-nonenal 1.9 microM, 4-hydroxyhexenal 38.9 microM) and by the cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2), EC(50): 5.6 microM). The effect of H(2)O(2) was reversed by treatment with dithiothreitol indicating that H(2)O(2) acts by promoting the formation of disulfide bonds whereas the actions of the alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) were not reversed, suggesting that these agents form Michael adducts. H(2)O(2) and the naturally occurring alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) acted on a subset of isolated rat and mouse sensory neurons [approximately 25% of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and approximately 50% of nodose ganglion neurons] to evoke a depolarizing inward current and an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in TRPA1 expressing neurons. The abilities of H(2)O(2), alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ(2) to raise [Ca(2+)](i) in mouse DRG neurons were greatly reduced in neurons from trpa1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, intraplantar injection of either H(2)O(2) or 15d-PGJ2 evoked a nocifensive/pain response in wild-type mice, but not in trpa1(-/-) mice. These data demonstrate that multiple agents produced during episodes of oxidative stress can activate TRPA1 expressed in sensory neurons.
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            TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation.

            The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding.
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              Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP): a novel animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I (CRPS-I; reflex sympathetic dystrophy) produced by prolonged hindpaw ischemia and reperfusion in the rat.

              A neuropathic-like pain syndrome was produced in rats following prolonged hindpaw ischemia and reperfusion, creating an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-Type I (CRPS-I; reflex sympathetic dystrophy) that we call chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). The method involves placing a tourniquet (a tight fitting O-ring) on one hindlimb of an anesthetized rat just proximal to the ankle joint for 3 h, and removing it to allow reperfusion prior to termination of the anesthesia. Rats exhibit hyperemia and edema/plasma extravasation of the ischemic hindpaw for a period of 2-4 h after reperfusion. Hyperalgesia to noxious mechanical stimulation (pin prick) and cold (acetone exposure), as well as mechanical allodynia to innocuous mechanical stimulation (von Frey hairs), are evident in the affected hindpaw as early as 8 h after reperfusion, and extend for at least 4 weeks in approximately 70% of the rats. The rats also exhibit spontaneous pain behaviors (hindpaw shaking, licking and favoring), and spread of hyperalgesia/allodynia to the uninjured contralateral hindpaw. Light-microscopic examination of the tibial nerve taken from the region just proximal to the tourniquet reveals no signs of nerve damage. Consistent with the hypothesis that the generation of free radicals may be partly responsible for CRPS-I and CPIP, two free radical scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperydine-1-oxyl (Tempol), were able to reduce signs of mechanical allodynia in this model.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                12 April 2019
                : 12
                : 1201-1216
                [1 ]Department of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The Third Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Neurology of Zhejiang Province , Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]College of Life Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ping WangDepartment of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , 548 Binwen Road, Hangzhou310053, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail wangping897@ 123456163.com
                Boyi LiuDepartment of Neurobiology and Acupuncture Research, The Third Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University , 548 Binwen Road, Hangzhou310053, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail boyi.liu@ 123456foxmail.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2019 Yin et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 4, References: 54, Pages: 16
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                rna-seq, pain, crps-i, dorsal root ganglion, neuropathic pain


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