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      Inhaled treprostinil: a therapeutic review

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          Abstract

          Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease which, if untreated, leads to right ventricular failure and often death. Several effective therapies are now available for PAH, including endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and prostacyclin analogs. The prostacyclin analog treprostinil has proven efficacious when delivered by subcutaneous or intravenous infusion, and most recently by inhalation. Inhaled treprostinil has been shown to be 64%–72% bioavailable in healthy volunteers. Pilot clinical studies have elucidated the acute hemodynamic effects and relative pulmonary selectivity of this agent, as well as established target dosing in PAH and nonoperable chronic thromboembolic PAH. Likewise, chronically administered inhaled treprostinil resulted in clinical and hemodynamic improvement. Both pilot studies confirmed a satisfactory safety profile in patients with PAH. The pivotal Phase III trial, TRIUMPH-I, demonstrated the efficacy and safety of inhaled treprostinil (target dose of 54 μg four times daily) in PAH patients added to background therapies of bosentan or sildenafil, as assessed by improvements in the primary endpoint, peak six-minute walk distance (median placebo-corrected treatment effect of 20 m), as well as select secondary endpoints. Inhaled treprostinil is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with World Health Organization Group I PAH to improve exercise ability. Studies establishing effectiveness included predominately patients with New York Heart Association functional class III symptoms and etiologies of idiopathic or heritable PAH (56%) or PAH associated with connective tissue diseases (33%).

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          Most cited references 30

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          Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Results from a national prospective registry.

          To characterize mortality in persons diagnosed with primary pulmonary hypertension and to investigate factors associated with survival. Registry with prospective follow-up. Thirty-two clinical centers in the United States participating in the Patient Registry for the Characterization of Primary Pulmonary Hypertension supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Patients (194) diagnosed at clinical centers between 1 July 1981 and 31 December 1985 and followed through 8 August 1988. At diagnosis, measurements of hemodynamic variables, pulmonary function, and gas exchange variables were taken in addition to information on demographic variables, medical history, and life-style. Patients were followed for survival at 6-month intervals. The estimated median survival of these patients was 2.8 years (95% Cl, 1.9 to 3.7 years). Estimated single-year survival rates were as follows: at 1 year, 68% (Cl, 61% to 75%); at 3 years, 48% (Cl, 41% to 55%); and at 5 years, 34% (Cl, 24% to 44%). Variables associated with poor survival included a New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of III or IV, presence of Raynaud phenomenon, elevated mean right atrial pressure, elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure, decreased cardiac index, and decreased diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Drug therapy at entry or discharge was not associated with survival duration. Mortality was most closely associated with right ventricular hemodynamic function and can be characterized by means of an equation using three variables: mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean right atrial pressure, and cardiac index. Such an equation, once validated prospectively, could be used as an adjunct in planning treatment strategies and allocating medical resources.
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            ACCF/AHA 2009 expert consensus document on pulmonary hypertension a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Expert Consensus Documents and the American Heart Association developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians; American Thoracic Society, Inc.; and the Pulmonary Hypertension Association.

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              A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension.

              Primary pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease for which no treatment has been shown in a prospective, randomized trial to improve survival. We conducted a 12-week prospective, randomized, multicenter open trial comparing the effects of the continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol (formerly called prostacyclin) plus conventional therapy with those of conventional therapy alone in 81 patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Exercise capacity was improved in the 41 patients treated with epoprostenol (median distance walked in six minutes, 362 m at 12 weeks vs. 315 m at base line), but it decreased in the 40 patients treated with conventional therapy alone (204 m at 12 weeks vs. 270 m at base line; P < 0.002 for the comparison of the treatment groups). Indexes of the quality of life were improved only in the epoprostenol group (P < 0.01). Hemodynamics improved at 12 weeks in the epoprostenol-treated patients. The changes in mean pulmonary-artery pressure for the epoprostenol and control groups were -8 percent and +3 percent, respectively (difference in mean change, -6.7 mm Hg; 95 percent confidence interval, -10.7 to -2.6 mm Hg; P < 0.002), and the mean changes in pulmonary vascular resistance for the epoprostenol and control groups were -21 percent and +9 percent, respectively (difference in mean change, -4.9 mm Hg/liter/min; 95 percent confidence interval, -7.6 to -2.3 mm Hg/liter/min; P < 0.001). Eight patients died during the study, all of whom had been randomly assigned to conventional therapy (P = 0.003). Serious complications included four episodes of catheter-related sepsis and one thrombotic event. As compared with conventional therapy, the continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol produced symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement, as well as improved survival in patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2012
                24 January 2012
                : 6
                : 19-28
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pulmonary Hypertension Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [2 ]University of Giessen Lung Center, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Giessen
                [3 ]Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Dept. of Lung Development and Remodeling, Bad Nauheim, Germany
                [4 ]University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Richard N Channick, Pulmonary Hypertension Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA, Tel +1 617 724 3705, Fax +1 617 724 6954, Email rchannick@ 123456partners.org
                Article
                dddt-6-019
                10.2147/DDDT.S19281
                3267519
                22291467
                © 2012 Channick et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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