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      Egocentric Direction and Position Perceptions are Dissociable Based on Only Static Lane Edge Information


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          When observers perceive several objects in a space, at the same time, they should effectively perceive their own position as a viewpoint. However, little is known about observers’ percepts of their own spatial location based on the visual scene information viewed from them. Previous studies indicate that two distinct visual spatial processes exist in the locomotion situation: the egocentric position perception and egocentric direction perception. Those studies examined such perceptions in information rich visual environments where much dynamic and static visual information was available. This study examined these two perceptions in information of impoverished environments, including only static lane edge information (i.e., limited information). We investigated the visual factors associated with static lane edge information that may affect these perceptions. Especially, we examined the effects of the two factors on egocentric direction and position perceptions. One is the “uprightness factor” that “far” visual information is seen at upper location than “near” visual information. The other is the “central vision factor” that observers usually look at “far” visual information using central vision (i.e., foveal vision) whereas ‘near’ visual information using peripheral vision. Experiment 1 examined the effect of the “uprightness factor” using normal and inverted road images. Experiment 2 examined the effect of the “central vision factor” using normal and transposed road images where the upper half of the normal image was presented under the lower half. Experiment 3 aimed to replicate the results of Experiments 1 and 2. Results showed that egocentric direction perception is interfered with image inversion or image transposition, whereas egocentric position perception is robust against these image transformations. That is, both “uprightness” and “central vision” factors are important for egocentric direction perception, but not for egocentric position perception. Therefore, the two visual spatial perceptions about observers’ own viewpoints are fundamentally dissociable.

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          Most cited references27

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          Where we look when we steer.

          Steering a car requires visual information from the changing pattern of the road ahead. There are many theories about what features a driver might use, and recent attempts to engineer self-steering vehicles have sharpened interest in the mechanisms involved. However, there is little direct information linking steering performance to the driver's direction of gaze. We have made simultaneous recordings of steering-wheel angle and drivers' gaze direction during a series of drives along a tortuous road. We found that drivers rely particularly on the 'tangent point' on the inside of each curve, seeking this point 1-2 s before each bend and returning to it throughout the bend. The direction of this point relative to the car's heading predicts the curvature of the road ahead, and we examine the way this information is used.
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            Spatial memory: how egocentric and allocentric combine.

            Recent experiments indicate the need for revision of a model of spatial memory consisting of viewpoint-specific representations, egocentric spatial updating and a geometric module for reorientation. Instead, it appears that both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel, and combine to support behavior according to the task. Current research indicates complementary roles for these representations, with increasing dependence on allocentric representations with the amount of movement between presentation and retrieval, the number of objects remembered, and the size, familiarity and intrinsic structure of the environment. Identifying the neuronal mechanisms and functional roles of each type of representation, and of their interactions, promises to provide a framework for investigation of the organization of human memory more generally.
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              Pixel independence: measuring spatial interactions on a CRT display.

              D. Pelli (1997)
              The standard working assumption of careful CRT imaging is that each pixel is imaged independently, through a point nonlinearity (the monitor's gamma function, relating screen luminance to input voltage), and then blurred by the point-spread function of the beam spot on the phosphor. Unfortunately most monitors have inadequate video bandwidth, DC restoration, and high-voltage regulation to live up to this ideal model. Two tests are recommended for assessing a CRT's deviation from the pixel-independence model.

                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                30 November 2015
                : 6
                [1] 1RIKEN Brain Science Institute-TOYOTA Collaboration Center, RIKEN Wako, Japan
                [2] 2Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Frederic Boy, Swansea University, UK

                Reviewed by: Richard Palluel Germain, Université Pierre-Mendès-France, France; Irene Reppa, Swansea University, UK

                *Correspondence: Ryoichi Nakashima, one.island.one@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Cognitive Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2015 Nakashima, Iwai, Ueda and Kumada.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Funded by: Toyota Motor Corporation 10.13039/501100004405
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                spatial perception,egocentric direction perception,egocentric position perception,static visual information,lane-edge information


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