Eric Boëda 1 , 2 , * , Marcos Ramos 3 , Antonio Pérez 1 , 4 , Christine Hatté 5 , Christelle Lahaye 6 , Mario Pino 7 , David Hérisson 1 , Ignacio Clemente-Conte 8 , Michel Fontugne 5 , Guillaume Guérin 6 , Ximena Villagran 9 , Janaina C. Santos 10 , Lucas Costa 11 , Lucie Germond 1 , Nelson Eric Ahmed-Delacroix 1 , Amelie Da Costa 1 , Carolina Borges 12 , Sirley Hoeltz 13 , Gisele Felice 10 , 14 , María Gluchy 15 , Grégoire van Havre 11 , Christophe Griggo 16 , Livia Lucas 17 , Iderlan de Souza 11 , Sibeli Viana 18 , André Strauss 9 , Jennifer Kerner 2 , Niède Guidon 14
10 March 2021
Current archaeological paradigm proposes that the first peopling of the Americas does not exceed the Last Glacial Maximum period. In this context, the acceptance of the anthropogenic character of the earliest stone artefacts generally rests on the presence of projectile points considered no more as typocentric but as typognomonic, since it allows, by itself, to certify the human character of the other associated artefacts. In other words, without this presence, nothing is certain. Archaeological research at Piauí (Brazil) attests to a Pleistocene human presence between 41 and 14 cal kyr BP, without any record of lithic projectile points. Here, we report the discovery and interpretation of an unusual stone artefact in the Vale da Pedra Furada site, in a context dating back to 24 cal kyr BP. The knapping stigmata and macroscopic use-wear traces reveal a conception centred on the configuration of double bevels and the production in the same specimen of at least two successive artefacts with probably different functions. This piece unambiguously presents an anthropic character and reveals a technical novelty during the Pleistocene occupation of South America.