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      Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel mutation of MLH1 in an extended family with lynch syndrome

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          Abstract

          Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or Lynch syndrome is autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by early onset of colorectal cancer and neoplasia in other organs. This condition typically caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. To date, a considerable number of MLH1 gene mutations have been found to be associated with Lynch syndrome. We were aimed at identifying a genetic mutation in an extended Iranian family affected by Lynch syndrome-related cancers. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing to identifying mutation in the proband. Furthermore, we applied Sanger sequencing to validate the candidate variant. We found a heterozygous novel single nucleotide deletion (c.206delG) in the exon two of the MLH1 gene in the proband. Also, Sanger sequencing analysis showed that this mutation has segregated in all affected family members. The mutation (c.206delG:p.R69fs) may create a premature stop codon followed by the formation of a truncated (p.R69fs) Mlh1 protein. Our findings expand the mutational spectra of MLH1 gene related Lynch syndrome which is vital for screening and genetic diagnosis of the disease.

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          Most cited references21

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            ANNOVAR: functional annotation of genetic variants from high-throughput sequencing data

            High-throughput sequencing platforms are generating massive amounts of genetic variation data for diverse genomes, but it remains a challenge to pinpoint a small subset of functionally important variants. To fill these unmet needs, we developed the ANNOVAR tool to annotate single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/deletions, such as examining their functional consequence on genes, inferring cytogenetic bands, reporting functional importance scores, finding variants in conserved regions, or identifying variants reported in the 1000 Genomes Project and dbSNP. ANNOVAR can utilize annotation databases from the UCSC Genome Browser or any annotation data set conforming to Generic Feature Format version 3 (GFF3). We also illustrate a ‘variants reduction’ protocol on 4.7 million SNVs and indels from a human genome, including two causal mutations for Miller syndrome, a rare recessive disease. Through a stepwise procedure, we excluded variants that are unlikely to be causal, and identified 20 candidate genes including the causal gene. Using a desktop computer, ANNOVAR requires ∼4 min to perform gene-based annotation and ∼15 min to perform variants reduction on 4.7 million variants, making it practical to handle hundreds of human genomes in a day. ANNOVAR is freely available at http://www.openbioinformatics.org/annovar/ .
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              New clinical criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) proposed by the International Collaborative group on HNPCC.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                27 July 2019
                December 2020
                27 July 2019
                : 7
                : 4
                : 614-619
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [b ]Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [c ]Student Research Committee, Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [d ]Nourdanesh Institute, Meymeh, Isfahan, Iran
                [e ]Deputy for Prevention Affairs of State Welfare Organization of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran
                [f ]Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
                [g ]Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 5th Kilometer of Damghan Road, Semnan, Iran. Tel./fax: +23 33654185. darvish_mg@ 123456sbmu.ac.ir
                Article
                S2352-3042(19)30055-8
                10.1016/j.gendis.2019.07.011
                7729095
                a3fd762f-d96b-4f00-9a85-052fd7b6849c
                © 2020 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 24 April 2019
                : 8 July 2019
                : 18 July 2019
                Categories
                Short Communication

                colorectal cancer,lung cancer,mismatch repair,mlh1
                colorectal cancer, lung cancer, mismatch repair, mlh1

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