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      Monte Carlo characterization of biocompatible beta‐emitting 90Y glass seed incorporated with the radionuclide 153Sm as a SPECT marker for brachytherapy applications

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          A glass seed consisting of the β ‐emitting radionuclide 90 Y incorporated with radionuclide 153 Sm as SPECT marker is proposed for potential application in brachytherapy in order to reduce the undesirable dose to healthy adjacent organs. The aim of this work is to determine the dosimetric characteristics, as suggested in the AAPM TG‐60/TG‐149 reports, for this seed using Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo codes MCNP5, EGSnrc, and FLUKA were used to calculate the absorbed dose distribution around the seed. Dosimetric parameters, such as reference absorbed dose rate, radial dose function, and one‐dimensional (1D) and two‐dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions, were obtained. The computational results from these three codes are in agreement within 5.4% difference on average. The absorbed dose rate at the reference point was estimated to be 5.01 cGy h 1 μ Ci 1 and self absorption of YAS glass seed amounted to 30.51%. The results showed that, with thermal neutron bombardment of 5 hours in a typical flux, sufficient activity for applications in brachytherapy may be achieved. With a 5 mCi initial activity, the total dose of a YAS glass seed was estimated to be 1.38 Gy at 1.0 cm from the seed center. Comparing with gamma emitting seeds, the 90 Y seed could reduce undesirable doses to adjacent organs, because of the rapid dose falloff of beta ray. Because of the high R 90 value of 5.5 mm, fewer number of 90 Y seeds will be required for an interstitial brachytherapy treatment using permanent implant, in comparison with other beta‐emitting seeds. The results would be helpful in the development of the radioactive implants using 90 Y glass seeds for the brachytherapy treatment.

          PACS numbers: 87.53.Jw, 87.56.bg

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          Most cited references 24

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          Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine on dosimetry, imaging, and quality assurance procedures for 90Y microsphere brachytherapy in the treatment of hepatic malignancies.

          Yttrium-90 microsphere brachytherapy of the liver exploits the distinctive features of the liver anatomy to treat liver malignancies with beta radiation and is gaining more wide spread clinical use. This report provides a general overview of microsphere liver brachytherapy and assists the treatment team in creating local treatment practices to provide safe and efficient patient treatment. Suggestions for future improvements are incorporated with the basic rationale for the therapy and currently used procedures. Imaging modalities utilized and their respective quality assurance are discussed. General as well as vendor specific delivery procedures are reviewed. The current dosimetry models are reviewed and suggestions for dosimetry advancement are made. Beta activity standards are reviewed and vendor implementation strategies are discussed. Radioactive material licensing and radiation safety are discussed given the unique requirements of microsphere brachytherapy. A general, team-based quality assurance program is reviewed to provide guidance for the creation of the local procedures. Finally, recommendations are given on how to deliver the current state of the art treatments and directions for future improvements in the therapy.
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            Supplement to the 2004 update of the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report.

            Since publication of the 2004 update to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report (TG-43U1), several new low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources have become available. Many of these sources have satisfied the AAPM prerequisites for routine clinical use as of January 10, 2005, and are posted on the Joint AAPM/RPC Brachytherapy Seed Registry. Consequently, the AAPM has prepared this supplement to the 2004 AAPM TG-43 update. This paper presents the AAPM-approved consensus datasets for these sources, and includes the following 125I sources: Amersham model 6733, Draximage model LS-1, Implant Sciences model 3500, IBt model 1251L, IsoAid model IAI-125A, Mentor model SL-125/ SH-125, and SourceTech Medical model STM1251. The Best Medical model 2335 103Pd source is also included. While the methodology used to determine these data sets is identical to that published in the AAPM TG-43U1 report, additional information and discussion are presented here on some questions that arose since the publication of the TG-43U1 report. Specifically, details of interpolation and extrapolation methods are described further, new methodologies are recommended, and example calculations are provided. Despite these changes, additions, and clarifications, the overall methodology, the procedures for developing consensus data sets, and the dose calculation formalism largely remain the same as in the TG-43U1 report. Thus, the AAPM recommends that the consensus data sets and resultant source-specific dose-rate distributions included in this supplement be adopted by all end users for clinical treatment planning of low-energy photon-emitting brachytherapy sources. Adoption of these recommendations may result in changes to patient dose calculations, and these changes should be carefully evaluated and reviewed with the radiation oncologist prior to implementation of the current protocol.
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              Intravascular brachytherapy physics: report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group no. 60. American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

              Recent preclinical and clinical studies indicate that irradiation using ionizing radiation in the dose range of 15 to 30 Gy may reduce the occurrence of restenosis in patients who have undergone an angioplasty. Several delivery systems of intravascular brachytherapy have been developed to deliver radiation doses in this range with minimal normal tissue toxicity. In late 1995 the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group to investigate these issues and to report the current state of the art of intravascular brachytherapy physics. The report of this task group is presented here.

                Author and article information

                J Appl Clin Med Phys
                J Appl Clin Med Phys
                Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                06 September 2013
                September 2013
                : 14
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1002/acm2.2013.14.issue-5 )
                : 90-103
                [ 1 ] Department of Medical Radiation Engineering Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University Tehran Iran
                [ 2 ] Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute Karaj Iran
                [ 3 ] Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute Tehran Iran
                [ 4 ] Department of Biophysics Faculty of Medicine Medical Sciences University of Tehran Tehran Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Asghar Hadadi, Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515–775, Tehran, Iran; phone: (+98) 021–44817170; fax: (+98) 021–44817175; email: a.hadadi@ 123456srbiau.ac.ir
                © 2013 The Authors.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 7, References: 31, Pages: 14, Words: 5979
                Radiation Oncology Physics
                Radiation Oncology Physics
                Custom metadata
                September 2013
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.5 mode:remove_FC converted:16.11.2017


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