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      Transbuccal delivery of betahistine dihydrochloride from mucoadhesive tablets with a unidirectional drug flow: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo evaluation

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          Betahistine dihydrochloride (BH.2HCl), an anti-vertigo histamine analog used in the treatment of Ménière’s disease, undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and suffers from short biological half-life. The aim of the present work was to develop and estimate controlled release mucoadhesive buccal tablets of BH.2HCl with a unidirectional drug flow to overcome this encumbrance.


          A direct compression method was adopted for preparation of the tablets using mucoadhesive polymers like guar gum, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and their combinations. The tablets were coated from all surfaces except one surface with a solution of 5% (w/v) cellulose acetate and 1% (w/v) dibutyl phthalate. Different permeation enhancers like 2% sodium deoxycholate, 2% sodium cholate hydrate (SCH) and 5% menthol were tested. Swelling index, ex vivo residence time, mucoadhesion strength, in vivo testing of mucoadhesion time, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo permeation were carried out. Furthermore, compatibility and accelerated stability studies were performed for the drug excipients. Finally, drug bioavailability of the BH.2HCl-optimized buccal mucoadhesive formulation was compared with that of the orally administered Betaserc ® 24 mg tablet in six healthy male volunteers.


          Formulation F10, which contained a combination of 35% guar gum and 5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, exhibited long adhesion time, high adhesion strength and diminished irritation to volunteers and showed zero-order release kinetics. SCH produced a significant enhancement in permeation of BH.2HCl across buccal mucosa. BH.2HCl-optimized buccal mucoadhesive formulation showed percentage relative bioavailability of 177%.


          The developed mucoadhesive tablets represent a promising alternative for the buccal delivery of BH.2HCl.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Mucoadhesive delivery systems. I. Evaluation of mucoadhesive polymers for buccal tablet formulation.

          Different types of mucoadhesive polymers, intended for buccal tablet formulation, were investigated for their comparative mucoadhesive force, swelling behavior, residence time and surface pH. The selected polymers were carbopols (CP934, and CP940), polycarbophil (PC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and pectin representing the anionic type, while chitosan (Ch) as cationic polymer and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) as a non-ionic polymer. Results revealed that polyacrylic acid derivatives (PAA) showed the highest bioadhesion force, prolonged residence time and high surface acidity. SCMC and chitosan ensured promising bioadhesive characteristics, whilst HPMC and pectin exhibited weaker bioadhesion. Different polymer combinations as well as formulations were evaluated to improve the mucoadhesive performance of the tablets. Bioadhesive tablet formulations containing either 5% CP934, 65% HPMC and 30% spray-dried lactose or 2% PC, 68% HPMC and 30% mannitol showed optimum mucoadhesion and suitable residence time. SCMC, when formulated individually, exhibited promising bioadhesion, acceptable swelling, convenient residence time and surface pH. In-vivo trials of these formulations proved non-irritative and prolonged residence of the mucoadhesive tablets on human buccal mucosa for 8 to 13 h.
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            Development of controlled-release buccoadhesive hydrophilic matrices of diltiazem hydrochloride: optimization of bioadhesion, dissolution, and diffusion parameters.

            Buccoadhesives have long been employed to improve the bioavailability of drugs undergoing significant hepatic first-pass metabolism. Diltiazem hydrochloride (DLZ) is also reported to have low oral bioavailability due to an extensive hepatic first-pass effect. Controlled-release buccoadhesive hydrophilic matrices containing DLZ were prepared using a 3(2) factorial design. Amounts of Carbopol 934P (CP) and Methocel K100LV (HPMC) were taken as the formulation variables (factors) for optimizing bioadhesion, and kinetics of dissolution and diffusion. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Bioadhesive strength tended to vary quite linearly in increasing order with increasing amount of each polymer. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be non-fickian, approaching zero-order kinetics. The values of permeation coefficient tended to vary non-linearly with polymer amount, depicting the plausibility of interaction between the two polymers. Suitable combinations of the two polymers provided adequate bioadhesive strength and a fairly regulated release profile up to 10 hr. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.
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              Nanotransfersomes of carvedilol for intranasal delivery: formulation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

              Development of carvedilol-loaded transfersomes for intranasal administration to overcome poor nasal permeability and hepatic first pass effect so as to enhance its bioavailability.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                14 December 2016
                : 10
                : 4031-4045
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Adel A Ali, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, El Shahed Shehata Ahmed Hegazy St., Beni-Suef, Egypt, Tel +20 822 317 958, Email adel.ali@ 123456pharm.bsu.edu.eg
                © 2016 El-Nabarawi et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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