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      Intra-erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum induces up-regulation of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 on human endothelial cells in vitro.

      Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

      Animals, Cell Adhesion Molecules, physiology, Endothelium, Vascular, chemistry, cytology, Erythrocytes, parasitology, Humans, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Macrophages, secretion, Plasmodium falciparum, isolation & purification, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, pharmacology, Up-Regulation, Umbilical Veins

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          Abstract

          The stimulation of human vascular endothelial cells with P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes resulted in the non-transient up-regulation of ICAM-1 expression on human endothelial cells. The induction was independent from TNF as assured in various controls including the application of a TNF-neutralizing antibody. The possibility that TNF is produced by endothelial cells was investigated in a purified culture of human endothelial cells by TNF-ELISA and TNF-bio-assay both with negative results. This result may be evidence of the existence of TNF-independent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of human cerebral malaria.

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