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      New records of Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Orussidae) represent a significant western range expansion

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          Abstract

          Abstract
          Background

          Orussus minutus is an uncommonly collected parasitoid sawfly known from the eastern United States.

          New information

          We report specimens Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983, from Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Manitoba, which represent new state and province records and significantly expand the known range of the species west from previous records; provide collection information for unpublished specimens housed in the United States National Museum collection, which includes new state records for West Virginia and Michigan; and report two specimens housed in the Biological Museum at Lund University that represent new state records for Connecticut.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation.

          The Hymenoptera--ants, bees and wasps--represent one of the most successful but least understood insect radiations. We present the first comprehensive molecular study spanning the entire order Hymenoptera. It is based on approximately 7 kb of DNA sequence from 4 gene regions (18S, 28S, COI and EF-1α) for 116 species representing all superfamilies and 23 outgroup taxa from eight orders of Holometabola. Results are drawn from both parsimony and statistical (Bayesian and likelihood) analyses, and from both by-eye and secondary-structure alignments. Our analyses provide the first firm molecular evidence for monophyly of the Vespina (Orussoidea+Apocrita). Within Vespina, our results indicate a sister-group relationship between Ichneumonoidea and Proctotrupomorpha, while the stinging wasps (Aculeata) are monophyletic and nested inside Evaniomorpha. In Proctotrupomorpha, our results provide evidence for a novel core clade of proctotrupoids, and support for the recently proposed Diaprioidea. An unexpected result is the support for monophyly of a clade of wood-boring sawflies (Xiphydrioidea+Siricoidea). As in previous molecular studies, Orussidae remain difficult to place and are either sister group to a monophyletic Apocrita, or the sister group of Stephanidae within Apocrita. Both results support a single origin of parasitism, but the latter would propose a controversial reversal in the evolution of the wasp-waist. Generally our results support earlier hypotheses, primarily based on morphology, for a basal grade of phytophagous families giving rise to a single clade of parasitic Hymenoptera, the Vespina, from which predatory, pollen-feeding, gall-forming and eusocial forms evolved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            PCR primers for the amplification of four insect mitochondrial gene fragments.

            Insect mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) analysis is a powerful tool for the study of population genetics and phylogenetics. In the past few years primer sequences for the PCR amplification of various insect mtDNA genes have been published. The objectives of this study were (1) present new primer sequences for six insect mitochondrial genes and (2) test primers designed in our laboratory and some previously published primers on a wide range of insects to determine if amplification of the target fragment could be obtained. The primers for the amplification of the two ribosomal RNA gene (16S and 12S rRNA) fragments are universal for insects and related groups; the primers for NADH5 and NADH4 dehydrogenase gene fragments and cytochrome c oxidase I gene fragment are applicable broadly.
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              An Outline of Evolution of the Hymenopterous Insects (Order Vespida)

               A. Rasnitsyn (2017)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2015
                31 August 2015
                : 3
                Affiliations
                []University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, United States of America
                [§ ]USDA ARS Pollinating Insects Research Unit, Logan, United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Michael Joseph Skvarla ( mskvarla36@ 123456gmail.com ).

                Academic editor: Michael Engel

                Article
                Biodiversity Data Journal 4302
                10.3897/BDJ.3.e5793
                4568401
                Michael Joseph Skvarla, Amber Tripodi, Allen Szalanski, Ashley Dowling

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC-BY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 49
                Funding
                Funded by: This project and the preparation of this publication was funded in part by the State Wildlife Grants Program (Grant # T39-05) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service through an agreement with the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission.
                Categories
                Taxonomic Paper
                Orussoidea
                Orussidae
                Hymenoptera
                Biogeography
                Neogene
                North America
                USA and Canada

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