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      Bone Deficits in Parenteral Nutrition–Dependent Infants and Children With Intestinal Failure Are Attenuated When Accounting for Slower Growth :

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          Most cited references 33

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          Reference intervals for serum creatinine concentrations: assessment of available data for global application.

          Reference intervals for serum creatinine remain relevant despite the current emphasis on the use of the estimated glomerular filtration rate for assessing renal function. Many studies on creatinine reference values have been published in the last 20 years. Using criteria derived from published IFCC documents, we sought to identify universally applicable reference intervals for creatinine via a systematic review of the literature. Studies were selected for inclusion in the systematic review only if the following criteria were met: (a) reference individuals were selected using an "a priori" selection scheme, (b) preanalytical conditions were adequately described; (c) traceability of the produced results to the isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (IDMS) reference method was demonstrated experimentally, and (d) the collected data received adequate statistical treatment. Of 37 reports dealing specifically with serum creatinine reference values, only 1 report with pediatric data and 5 reports with adult data met these criteria. The primary reason for exclusion of most papers was an inadequate demonstration of measurement traceability. Based on the data of the selected studies, we have collated recommended reference intervals for white adults and children. Laboratories using methods producing traceable results to IDMS can apply the selected reference intervals for serum creatinine in evaluating white individuals.
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            A variable degree of intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation in a family with a missense mutation in the insulin-like growth factor I receptor.

            The type 1 IGF-I receptor (IGF1R) mediates the biological functions of IGF-I. Binding of IGF-I to the IGF1R results in autophosphorylation of the intracellular beta-subunit and activation of intracellular signaling. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional characteristics of a novel IGF1R mutation and describe the phenotypic features of two patients with this mutation. The study was performed in a university hospital. We describe a 35-yr-old female with mild intrauterine growth failure, progressive postnatal growth retardation, severe failure to thrive, and microcephaly. Her daughter was born with severe intrauterine growth retardation and also showed postnatal failure to thrive and microcephaly. We found a heterozygous G3148-->A nucleotide substitution in the IGF1R gene, changing a negatively charged glutamic acid at position 1050 into a positively charged lysine residue (E1050K). E1050 is a conserved residue in the intracellular kinase domain. Dermal fibroblasts of the mother showed normal binding of iodinated IGF-I, but autophosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling cascades upon challenging with IGF-I was markedly reduced. Consequently, the maximal [(3)H]thymidine incorporation upon challenge with a dose range of IGF-I was reduced compared with a panel of control cells (3.65 +/- 1.79-fold vs. 6.75 +/- 4.7-fold stimulation; P < 0.01). These data suggest that the mutation results in the inactivation of one copy of the IGF1R gene. These two patients support the key role for IGF-I in intrauterine and postnatal growth. The different phenotypes of these and earlier described patients may be associated with variability in IGF-I signaling. The degree of intrauterine growth retardation may be partially determined by the presence or absence of maternal IGF-I resistance.
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              Nutritional regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I.

              Several lines of evidence indicate that in the human, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is nutritionally regulated. Both energy and protein availability are required for maintenance of IGF-I. Measurements of serum IGF-I constitute a sensitive means for monitoring the response of acutely ill patients to nutritional intervention. Serum IGF-I may also serve as a marker for evaluation of nutritional status. Our findings and those of others in animal models suggest that nutrients influence synthesis and action of IGF-I and its binding proteins (IGFBPs) at multiple levels. In fasting, liver growth hormone (GH) binding is decreased, providing one explanation for decreased IGF-I. In protein restriction, GH receptors are maintained, but there is evidence for a postreceptor defects. The latter results from pretranslational and translational defects. Amino acid availability to the hepatocytes is essential for IGF-I gene expression. Protein malnutrition not only decreases IGF-I production rate, but also enhances its serum clearance and degradation. Finally, there is evidence for selective organ resistance to the growth-promoting effects of IGF-I in protein-restricted rats.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
                Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0277-2116
                2013
                July 2013
                : 57
                : 1
                : 124-130
                Article
                10.1097/MPG.0b013e318291fec5
                © 2013

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