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      Thrombotic complications and tip position of transjugular chronic dialysis catheter scheduled into superior vena cava : Findings on HR-MRCP and HR-T 2WI

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Catheter-related thrombotic complications(TCs) can occur during the long term use of a chronic dialysis catheter (CDC), including fibrin sheath (FS), mural thrombosis (MT), venous thrombosis (VT), and intraluminal clots (IC), which has not been reported with MRI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the determination of catheter tip position (TP) and resolution of TCs in patients with transjugular CDC scheduled into the superior vena cava using high resolution magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (HR-MRCP) and T 2-weighted imaging (HR-T 2WI).

          Methods:

          The study protocol was approved by the local Research Ethics Committee. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. In total, 41 consecutively enrolled transjugular CDC patients with suspected catheter dysfunction were scanned with HRMRCP and HR-T 2WI. The distance from the top to the tip of the catheter and the presence and nature of catheter TCs were assessed by 2 experienced radiologists. Chest x-ray was taken within 1 to 2 days and CDC was withdrawn within 3 to 10 days from those patients with TCs identified by HR-MRI.

          Results:

          A total of 38 subjects successfully underwent HR-MRI, including 13 normal and 25 with TCs (fibrin sheath [FS]: n = 21, mural thrombosis [MT]: n = 7, venous thrombosis [VT]: n = 3, intraluminal clots [IC]: n = 4). There was no significant difference between HR-MRCP and chest x-ray in catheter TP determination ( P = .124). Normal catheter appeared as “double eyes” on HR-T 2WI and “double tracks” on HR-MRCP. TCs appeared as follows: FS displayed as a “thin ring” (<1mm) around the catheter, MT as patchy hyperintensity and VT as a “thick ring” (>5mm) on HR-T 2WI. Unilateral IC appeared as a “single eye” on HR-T 2WI and a “single track” on HR-MRCP (n = 3). Bilateral IC appeared as neither “eye” nor “track” (n = 1). Catheter withdrawal confirmed FS (n = 16), MT (n = 6), VT (n = 1), and IC (n = 4).

          Conclusion:

          HR-MRCP and HR-T 2WI are promising methods for visualizing TP and TCs in CDC patients, and are helpful in adjusting the treatment plan and avoiding the risk of pulmonary embolism.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Clinical practice guidelines for vascular access.

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            Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of catheter-related thrombosis in adult patients with cancer.

            Thrombosis of long-term central venous catheters (CVC) is a serious complication that causes morbidity and interrupts the infusion of chemotherapy, intravenous medication, and blood products. We performed a prospective study to examine the incidence, risk factors, and long-term complications of symptomatic catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) in adults with cancer. Consecutive patients with cancer, undergoing insertion of a CVC, were enrolled and prospectively followed while their catheter remained in place plus 4 subsequent weeks or a maximum of 52 weeks, whichever came first. Patients with symptomatic CRT were followed for an additional 52 weeks from the date of CRT diagnosis. The end points were symptomatic CRT, symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), postphlebitic syndrome, and catheter life span. Over 76,713 patient-days of follow-up, 19 of 444 patients (4.3%) had symptomatic CRT in 19 of 500 catheters (0.3 per 1,000 catheter-days). The median time to CRT was 30 days and the median catheter life span was 88 days. Significant baseline risk factors for CRT were: more than one insertion attempt (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 24.6; P = .03); ovarian cancer (OR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 15.1; P = .01); and previous CVC insertion (OR = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 10.4; P = .01). Nine of the 19 CRT patients were treated with anticoagulants alone, eight patients were treated with anticoagulants and catheter removal, while two patients did not receive anticoagulation. None had recurrent CRT or symptomatic PE. Postphlebitic symptoms were infrequent. In adults with cancer, the incidence of symptomatic CRT is low and long-term complications are uncommon.
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              Risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) in cancer patients: a patient-level data (IPD) meta-analysis of clinical trials and prospective studies.

              Knowledge of independent, baseline risk factors for catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) may help select adult cancer patients who are at high risk to receive thromboprophylaxis. We conducted a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data to identify these baseline risk factors. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, DARE and the Grey literature databases were searched in all languages from 1995 to 2008. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. Studies were included if original patient-level data were provided by the investigators and if CRT was objectively confirmed with valid imaging. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of 17 prespecified baseline characteristics was conducted. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. A total sample of 5636 subjects from five RCTs and seven prospective studies was included in the analysis. Among these subjects, 425 CRT events were observed. In multivariate logistic regression, the use of implanted ports as compared with peripherally implanted central venous catheters (PICCs), decreased CRT risk (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.23-0.80), whereas past history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.05-3.92), subclavian venipuncture insertion technique (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.07-4.34) and improper catheter tip location (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22-3.02), increased CRT risk. CRT risk is increased with use of PICCs, previous history of DVT, subclavian venipuncture insertion technique and improper positioning of the catheter tip. These factors may be useful for risk stratifying patients to select those for thromboprophylaxis. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                June 2017
                30 June 2017
                : 96
                : 26
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha
                [b ]Philips Healthcare, Buiding, Shanghai
                [c ]Department of Nephrology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Yigang Pei, Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China (e-mail: xypyg0731@ 123456163.com ).
                Article
                MD-D-16-06191 07135
                10.1097/MD.0000000000007135
                5500026
                28658104
                Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License 4.0, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work, even for commercial purposes, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0

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