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      Alternative activation of macrophages.

      Nature reviews. Immunology

      immunology, Th2 Cells, Mice, Macrophage Activation, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-13, Humans, Chemokines, Cell Differentiation, Antibody Formation, Animals

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          Abstract

          The classical pathway of interferon-gamma-dependent activation of macrophages by T helper 1 (T(H)1)-type responses is a well-established feature of cellular immunity to infection with intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV. The concept of an alternative pathway of macrophage activation by the T(H)2-type cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 has gained credence in the past decade, to account for a distinctive macrophage phenotype that is consistent with a different role in humoral immunity and repair. In this review, I assess the evidence in favour of alternative macrophage activation in the light of macrophage heterogeneity, and define its limits and relevance to a range of immune and inflammatory conditions.

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          Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?

          The response of the body to a cancer is not a unique mechanism but has many parallels with inflammation and wound healing. This article reviews the links between cancer and inflammation and discusses the implications of these links for cancer prevention and treatment. We suggest that the inflammatory cells and cytokines found in tumours are more likely to contribute to tumour growth, progression, and immunosuppression than they are to mount an effective host antitumour response. Moreover cancer susceptibility and severity may be associated with functional polymorphisms of inflammatory cytokine genes, and deletion or inhibition of inflammatory cytokines inhibits development of experimental cancer. If genetic damage is the "match that lights the fire" of cancer, some types of inflammation may provide the "fuel that feeds the flames". Over the past ten years information about the cytokine and chemokine network has led to development of a range of cytokine/chemokine antagonists targeted at inflammatory and allergic diseases. The first of these to enter the clinic, tumour necrosis factor antagonists, have shown encouraging efficacy. In this article we have provided a rationale for the use of cytokine and chemokine blockade, and further investigation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the chemoprevention and treatment of malignant diseases.
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            Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor.

            Interleukin-10 (IL-10), first recognized for its ability to inhibit activation and effector function of T cells, monocytes, and macrophages, is a multifunctional cytokine with diverse effects on most hemopoietic cell types. The principal routine function of IL-10 appears to be to limit and ultimately terminate inflammatory responses. In addition to these activities, IL-10 regulates growth and/or differentiation of B cells, NK cells, cytotoxic and helper T cells, mast cells, granulocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. IL-10 plays a key role in differentiation and function of a newly appreciated type of T cell, the T regulatory cell, which may figure prominently in control of immune responses and tolerance in vivo. Uniquely among hemopoietic cytokines, IL-10 has closely related homologs in several virus genomes, which testify to its crucial role in regulating immune and inflammatory responses. This review highlights findings that have advanced our understanding of IL-10 and its receptor, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease.
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              Immunobiology of dendritic cells.

              Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells with a unique ability to induce primary immune responses. DCs capture and transfer information from the outside world to the cells of the adaptive immune system. DCs are not only critical for the induction of primary immune responses, but may also be important for the induction of immunological tolerance, as well as for the regulation of the type of T cell-mediated immune response. Although our understanding of DC biology is still in its infancy, we are now beginning to use DC-based immunotherapy protocols to elicit immunity against cancer and infectious diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                12511873
                10.1038/nri978

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