Seeds ofDryobalanops aromaticaandD. lanceolata(Dipterocarpaceae) were sown in gaps and understorey on a ridge and a valley in a
Bornean rainforest. Germination rates were 92–100% regardless of site and species.
On the ridge, the proportion of seedlings that opened primary leaves was larger inD. aromatica(19–30%) than inD. lanceolata(7–19%) due to higher root predation onD. lanceolata. In the valley, on the other hand, the proportion was larger inD. lanceolata(71–74%) than inD. aromatica(56%). After primary leaf production, seedlings of both species had higher survivorship
in the gaps than in the understorey. Interactions between predators, soil conditions
and light environment and their effects on seedling establishment are discussed.