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      Expression of a Functional Asialoglycoprotein Receptor in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background: The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a C lectin which binds and endocytoses serum glycoproteins. In humans, the ASGPR is shown mainly to occur in hepatocytes, but does occur extrahepatically in thyroid, in small and large intestines, and in the testis. In the kidney, there has been evidence both for and against its existence in mesangial cells. Methods: Standard light microscopy examination of renal tissue stained with an antibody against the ASGPR was performed. The mRNA expression for the ASGPR H1 and H2 subunits in primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), in the human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK2, and in human renal cortex was investigated using reverse-transcribed nested polymerase chain reaction. ASGPR protein expression as well as ligand binding and uptake were also examined using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting). Results: Light microscopy of paraffin renal biopsy sections stained with a polyclonal antibody against the ASGPR showed proximal tubular epithelial cell staining of the cytoplasm and particularly in the basolateral region. Renal cortex and RPTEC specifically have mRNA for both H1 and H2 subunits of the ASGPR, but HK2 only expresses mRNA for H1. Using a monoclonal antibody, the presence of the ASGPR in RPTEC was shown by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescent staining. Specific binding and uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled asialofetuin which is a specific ASGPR ligand was also demonstrated in RPTEC. Conclusions: Primary renal proximal tubular epithelial cells have a functional ASGPR, consisting of the H1 and H2 subunits, that is capable of specific ligand binding and uptake.

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          The clearance of apoptotic cells in the liver is mediated by the asialoglycoprotein receptor.

          Apoptosing cells are actively phagocytosed in parenchymal tissues, thus preventing the inflammatory reaction which could derive from their slow uncontrolled degradation. The molecular mechanisms by which an apoptotic cell is recognized and taken up are largely unknown. We propose that the recognition of apoptotic hepatocytes is mediated by the sugar recognition systems of the liver, particularly the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). The results presented here demonstrated the participation of ASGP-R in the removal of apoptotic parenchymal cells, and indicate a new perspective for the understanding of its physiological role.
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            Differential expression of the asialoglycoprotein receptor in discrete brain areas, in kidney and thyroid.

            The asyaloglycoprotein receptor is a dimer formed by two polypeptide chains abundantly expressed in the liver (RHL-1 and RHL-2). Using specific primers for the two polypeptide chains we measured, by semiquantitative reverse PCR (RT-PCR), the corresponding mRNAs in different rat tissues. We found that both RHL-1 and RHL-2 mRNAs are expressed in the liver, kidney, brain and thyroid. Under the same conditions we did not detect any specific mRNA in the spleen. In the brain these sequences are expressed along a posterior-anterior gradient. Cerebellum and brainstem display the highest expression of the brain RHL-1 and RHL-2 mRNAs. Tissues and regional distribution of this receptor suggest that other body districts besides liver may participate in the clearance of serum glycoproteins.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              NEF
              Nephron
              10.1159/issn.1660-8151
              Nephron
              S. Karger AG
              1660-8151
              2235-3186
              2002
              July 2002
              01 July 2002
              : 91
              : 3
              : 431-438
              Affiliations
              Departments of aRenal Medicine and bClinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore
              Article
              64283 Nephron 2002;91:431–438
              10.1159/000064283
              12119473
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 5, References: 32, Pages: 8
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/64283
              Categories
              Original Paper

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