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      Baicalin, a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Inhibits the Proliferation and Migration of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) Cells, A549 and H1299, by Activating the SIRT1/AMPK Signaling Pathway

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          Baicalin is a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, used in Chinese herbal medicine. Activation of the sirtuin 1 gene ( SIRT1) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase gene ( AMPK), the SIRT1/ AMPK signaling pathway, is associated with human malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baicalin on the cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and migration of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, A549 and H1299, in vitro.


          Human NSCLC cells, A549 and H1299, were treated with serial doses of baicalin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of the SIRT1 and AMPK genes was performed using cell transfection. The MTT assay was used to determine cell viability, flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis, wound healing and transwell assays were used to assess cell migration of A549 and H1299 cells. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression and phosphorylation levels in untreated A549 and H1299 cells, and cells treated with increasing doses of baicalin.


          Baicalin inhibited the viability, migration, and invasion of A549 and H1299 cells, and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Baicalin activated the SIRT1/ AMPK and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and SIRT1/ AMPK and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) signaling in A549 and H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA silencing of SIRT1 and AMPK reduced the effects of baicalin on cell proliferation and migration.


          Baicalin, a flavonoid used in Chinese herbal medicine, inhibited the proliferation and migration of human NSCLC cells, A549 and H1299, by activating the SIRT1/ AMPK signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling

          Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate β-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent.
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            Baicalin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling during Haemophilus parasuis infection

             Shulin Fu,  Lei Xu,  Sali Li (2016)
            Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is the causative agent of Glässer’s disease, a severe membrane inflammation disorder. Previously we showed that Baicalin (BA) possesses anti-inflammatory effects via the NLRP3 inflammatory pathway in an LPS-challenged piglet model. However, whether BA has anti-inflammatory effects upon H. parasuis infection is still unclear. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of BA on H. parasuis-induced inflammatory responses via the NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in piglet mononuclear phagocytes (PMNP). Our data demonstrate that PMNP, when infected with H. parasuis, induced ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, promoted apoptosis, and initiated transcription expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, PGE2, COX-2 and TNF-α via the NF-κB signaling pathway, and IL-1β and IL-18 via the NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway. Moreover, when BA was administrated, we observed a reduction in ROS production, suppression of apoptosis, and inhibition of the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway in PMNP treated with H. parasuis. To our best knowledge, this is the first example that uses piglet primary immune cells for an H. parasuis infection study. Our data strongly suggest that BA can reverse the inflammatory effect initiated by H. parasuis and possesses significant immunosuppression activity, which represents a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of H. parasuis infection.
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              In vivo and in vitro effect of baicalein on human prostate cancer cells.

              We investigated the in vitro effects of baicalein and baicalin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and on human prostate tumor cells (DU-145 and PC3) as well as the effect of orally administered baicalein on the growth of DU-145 cells after subcutaneous injection into SCID mice. In vitro effects of baicalein and baicalin treatment on human prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and PC-3 were assessed by employing cell proliferation (MTS) assay, cytotoxicity (LIVE/DEAD) assay, and TUNEL assay. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties of baicalein and baicalin were studied on HUVECs by sprout assay. The effect of orally administered baicalein on tumor growth in SCID mice was studied in four groups (n=10) of animals injected subcutaneously with DU-145 cells and treated daily for 28 days. The control group received only vehicle (carboxymethylcellulose), whereas the other three groups received escalating doses of baicalein (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg per day). Baicalein and baicalin exhibit dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects on human prostate cancer cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Also, treatment by these two flavonoid compounds significantly decreased the average number and length of sprouts formed by the endothelial cell aggregates in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, treatment of mice with baicalein demonstrated a statistically significant tumor volume reduction (p<0.01) when compared to the control. This is the first study demonstrating an in vivo growth inhibitory effect of orally administered baicalein on human prostate tumors in mice.

                Author and article information

                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                10 April 2018
                : 24
                : 2126-2133
                [1 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fenghua Peoples’ Hospital of Ningbo City, Ningbo, Zhejiang, P.R. China
                [2 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Jun Cheng, e-mail: lxqntu@

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                © Med Sci Monit, 2018

                This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

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