Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: found
Is Open Access

The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of Children in Kindergarten and Grade 2

, , *

Children

MDPI

physical activity, sedentary, health, accelerometer, children, transitions

Read this article at

Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      Accompanying the transition from early to middle childhood are substantial changes in children’s educational and recreational circumstances. These changes may affect physical activity levels. This study examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in kindergarten (age range 5–6 years) and grade 2 (age range 7–8 years). Participants were 96 kindergarten children recruited in the 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 school years and 94 grade 2 children recruited in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 school years. A sub-cohort of children was tracked longitudinally from kindergarten to grade 2. Accelerometers were used to measure physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Independent t-tests revealed that children in grade 2 spent significantly less time engaged in physical activity compared to those in kindergarten (292 min/day compared with 354 min/day) and more in sedentary behaviours (443 min/day compared with 368 min/day). For the longitudinal sample, the pattern was similar. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in physical activity levels (364 min/day to 292 min/day) and a significant increase in sedentary behaviour (368 min/day to 435 min/day) over time. There is a critical need to invest in strategies to maintain higher levels of physical activity across the primary years and reduce sedentary time, since these behaviours affect health outcomes.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 50

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer.

      To describe physical activity levels of children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-19 yr), and adults (20+ yr), using objective data obtained with accelerometers from a representative sample of the U.S. population. These results were obtained from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the United States. Data are described from 6329 participants who provided at least 1 d of accelerometer data and from 4867 participants who provided four or more days of accelerometer data. Males are more physically active than females. Physical activity declines dramatically across age groups between childhood and adolescence and continues to decline with age. For example, 42% of children ages 6-11 yr obtain the recommended 60 min x d(-1) of physical activity, whereas only 8% of adolescents achieve this goal. Among adults, adherence to the recommendation to obtain 30 min x d(-1) of physical activity is less than 5%. Objective and subjective measures of physical activity give qualitatively similar results regarding gender and age patterns of activity. However, adherence to physical activity recommendations according to accelerometer-measured activity is substantially lower than according to self-report. Great care must be taken when interpreting self-reported physical activity in clinical practice, public health program design and evaluation, and epidemiological research.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children.

        A calibration study was conducted to determine the threshold counts for two commonly used accelerometers, the ActiGraph and the Actical, to classify activities by intensity in children 5 to 8 years of age. Thirty-three children wore both accelerometers and a COSMED portable metabolic system during 15 min of rest and then performed up to nine different activities for 7 min each, on two separate days in the laboratory. Oxygen consumption was measured on a breath-by-breath basis, and accelerometer data were collected in 15-s epochs. Using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, cutpoints that maximised both sensitivity and specificity were determined for sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities. For both accelerometers, discrimination of sedentary behaviour was almost perfect, with the area under the ROC curve at or exceeding 0.98. For both the ActiGraph and Actical, the discrimination of moderate (0.85 and 0.86, respectively) and vigorous activity (0.83 and 0.86, respectively) was acceptable, but not as precise as for sedentary behaviour. This calibration study, using indirect calorimetry, suggests that the two accelerometers can be used to distinguish differing levels of physical activity intensity as well as inactivity among children 5 to 8 years of age.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

          Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO), personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement). 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV) watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI) as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01) indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2 hours is associated with reduced physical and psychosocial health, and that lowering sedentary time leads to reductions in BMI.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada; jrcrane@ 123456mun.ca (J.R.C.); pjnaylor@ 123456uvic.ca (P.-J.N.)
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: vtemple@ 123456uvic.ca ; Tel.: +1-250-721-7846
            Journal
            Children (Basel)
            Children (Basel)
            children
            Children
            MDPI
            2227-9067
            20 September 2018
            October 2018
            : 5
            : 10
            30241367 6210440 10.3390/children5100131 children-05-00131
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

            Categories
            Article

            Comments

            Comment on this article