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      Experiencia de embolización de la arteria renal previa a nefrectomía Translated title: Experience of Renal Artery Embolization Prior to Nephrectomy

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          Abstract

          Resumen Objetivo: Describir la evolución perioperatoria de pacientes sometidos a nefrectomía con y sin embolización de la arteria renal (EAR) prequirúrgica, en un hospital de alta complejidad de Medellín, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Observacional descriptivo retrospectivo; se incluyeron pacientes de 18-90 años con diagnóstico de tumor renal, sometidos a nefrectomía con y sin EAR prequirúrgica. Las variables cualitativas se expresaron por medio de frecuencias y proporciones, y las cuantitativas mediante medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Resultados: Se incluyeron 71 pacientes con una media de edad de 58,1 (DE: 10,6) años, 41 eran mujeres y el 69% tenía diagnóstico de carcinoma de células claras. La media del volumen de sangrado intraoperatorio fue de 540,8 cc, y 19,7% requirió transfusión. El tiempo quirúrgico promedio fue de 2,6 horas y el 38% presentó alguna complicación, con una mortalidad total del 4,2%. Al observar comparativamente los pacientes con EAR (15 pacientes) versus aquellos sin ella (56 pacientes), se identificó un mayor volumen de sangrado intraoperatorio y la necesidad de transfusión en los primeros. Conclusión: Los pacientes sometidos a EAR presentaron un mayor volumen de sangrado, mayor frecuencia de transfusión y complicaciones postoperatorias, siendo necesario un consenso sobre su real pertinencia terapéutica.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Aim: To describe the perioperative outcomes of patients undergoing nephrectomy with and without preoperative Renal Artery Embolization (RAE) in a high-complexity hospital in Medellín, Colombia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, descriptive and observational study; 18-90 years old patients with renal tumor diagnosis, submitted to nephrectomy with and without preoperative RAE were included. Qualitative variables were expressed by measures of frequencies and proportions, and quantitative variables were expressed by measures of central tendency and dispersion. Results: 71 patients with a media age of 58,1 (SD: 10,6) years were included, 41 were women and 69% were diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma. The blood loss volume media was 540.8 cc, and 19.7% required transfusion. The operative time media was 2.6 hours and 38% had any complication, with a total mortality of 4.2%. Comparatively observing patients with RAE (15 patients) versus patients without RAE (56 patients), a higher intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were identified in the first ones. Conclusion: Patients submitted to RAE presented greater volume of bleeding, greater frequency of transfusion and post-operative complications, requiring a consensus on its real therapeutic relevance.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Renal artery embolization: clinical indications and experience from over 100 cases.

          To review current indications and techniques for renal artery embolization (RAE) and more specifically to review cases of RAE before nephrectomy for treating patients with a large renal mass. All RAEs done at our institution between May 1993 and December 2005 were reviewed. Patients were identified using a database assembled by the Division of Cardiovascular Interventional Radiology. Indications, techniques and RAE-related complications were then obtained from a retrospective review of medical records. Additional data for patients undergoing preoperative infarction were acquired, including estimated blood loss (EBL), transfusion requirement, pathological size, subtype, grade, stage, and level of tumour thrombus if present. In all, there were 121 RAEs, 69 in males and 52 in females (mean age 57.6 years, range 11-89). Metallic microcoils were the most often used embolization agent, followed by acrylic microspheres (embospheres), polyvinyl alcohol particles, absolute ethanol, and Gelfoam (Pharmacia & Upjohn, USA). The most common indication for RAE was infarction before nephrectomy (54.5%). Other indications included symptomatic angiomyolipomas, palliation of unresectable renal cancer, haemorrhage, perinephric bleeding in end-stage renal disease, vascular lesions, malignant hypertension, and sequelae of end-stage renal disease. RAE-associated complications including coil migration, incomplete embolization, and groin haematoma (in 5.0%). Symptoms of post-infarction syndrome were common, with 74.4% of patients having flank pain, nausea, or vomiting; the vast majority of these symptoms were mild and self-limited. In patients having nephrectomy after RAE the median (range) interval from RAE was 2 (0-78) days. The mean tumour size was 11.2 (3.5-25) cm and 46% of patients had tumour thrombus present in either the renal vein or inferior vena cava (IVC). The mean (median) overall EBL in patients having nephrectomy after RAE was 1048 (725) mL. The mean transfusion requirement over the course of hospitalization was 3.9 units of packed red blood cells. RAE is a safe and effective therapeutic tool for many urological, renal and vascular conditions. Its use has increased at our institution due to improved techniques, embolization materials, and our increasing use of RAE as an adjuvant procedure for patients requiring nephrectomy with or without IVC thrombectomy. There are many potential operative advantages for patients having RAE before surgery, with minimal morbidity. It is likely that the lack of prospective randomized trials is the primary reason why it is underutilized in the preoperative setting.
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            Transcatheter renal artery embolization: clinical applications and techniques.

            Renal artery embolization is a minimally invasive procedure that is increasingly being used for treatment of a wide range of conditions. The main indications for renal artery embolization include (1) prenephrectomy and preradiofrequency ablation infarction of renal tumors, (2) management of renal angiomyolipomas, (3) palliations of unresectable renal malignancy, (4) renal hemorrhage (life-threatening or chronic debilitating hematuria), (5) arteriovenous fistulas, (6) vascular malformations, (7) renal artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, and other less common indications, such as severe hydronephrosis and hypertension. A variety of embolic materials are available, such as metal coils, sclerosants (glue, Onyx, absolute ethanol, lipiodol), and particulate embolic agents (polyvinyl alcohol particles and embospheres). Selection of the appropriate agent depends on the clinical application, technical and clinical endpoints, as well as the pathology lesion(s) targeted. Renal artery embolization can be performed alone or in combination with remodeling techniques, stent-grafting, and balloon- or stent-assisted coiling in more complicated cases. The procedure is generally regarded as safe and effective for diverse applications and is considered as an evolving area in the field of endoluminal therapy.
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              Renal artery embolization-indications, technical approaches and outcomes.

              Owing to improvements in catheters and embolic agents, renal artery embolization (RAE) is increasingly used to treat nephrological and urological disease. RAE has become a useful adjunct to medical resuscitation in severe penetrating, iatrogenic or blunt renal traumatisms with active bleeding, and might avoid surgical intervention, particularly among patients that are haemodynamically stable. The role of RAE in pre-operative or palliative management of advanced malignant renal tumours remains debated; however, RAE is recommended as a first-line therapy for bleeding angiomyolipomas and can be used as a preventative treatment for angiomyolipomas at risk of bleeding. RAE represents an alternative to nephrectomy in various medical conditions, including severe uncontrolled hypertension among patients with end-stage renal disease, renal graft intolerance syndrome or autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. RAE is increasingly used to treat renal artery aneurysms or symptomatic renal arteriovenous malformations, with a low complication rate as compared with surgical alternatives. This Review highlights the potential use of RAE as an adjunct in the management of renal disease. We first compare and contrast the technical approaches of RAE associated with the various available embolization agents and then discuss the complications associated with RAE and alternative procedures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rar
                Revista argentina de radiología
                Rev. argent. radiol.
                Sociedad Argentina de Radiología (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                1852-9992
                January 2020
                : 84
                : 1
                : 3-8
                Affiliations
                Antioquía orgnameUniversidad de Antioquia Colombia
                orgnameHospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación Colombia
                Antioquía orgnameUniversidad CES Colombia
                Antioquía orgnameUniversidad de Antioquia Colombia
                orgnameHospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación Colombia
                Article
                S1852-99922020000100003 S1852-9992(20)08400100003
                10.1055/s-0039-3402487

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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