5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      TGF-β1 Evokes Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Shortening and Hyperresponsiveness via Smad3

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d3366132e244">Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), a cytokine whose levels are elevated in the airways of patients with asthma, perpetuates airway inflammation and modulates airway structural cell remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β1 in excessive airway narrowing in asthma, or airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), remains unclear. In this study, we set out to investigate the direct effects of TGF-β1 on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cell shortening and hyperresponsiveness. The dynamics of AHR and single-cell excitation-contraction coupling were measured in human precision-cut lung slices and in isolated HASM cells using supravital microscopy and magnetic twisting cytometry, respectively. In human precision-cut lung slices, overnight treatment with TGF-β1 significantly augmented basal and carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction. In isolated HASM cells, TGF-β1 increased basal and methacholine-induced cytoskeletal stiffness in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TGF-β1–induced single-cell contraction was corroborated by concomitant increases in myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 phosphorylation levels, which were attenuated by small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of Smad3 and pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase. Strikingly, these physiological effects of TGF-β1 occurred through a RhoA-independent mechanism, with little effect on HASM cell [Ca <sup>2+</sup>] <sub>i</sub> levels. Together, our data suggest that TGF-β1 enhances HASM excitation-contraction coupling pathways to induce HASM cell shortening and hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal a potential link between airway injury–repair responses and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma, and define TGF-β1 signaling as a potential target to reduce AHR in asthma. </p>

          Related collections

          Most cited references 36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The prevalence of severe refractory asthma.

          Severe asthma is characterized by difficulty to achieve disease control despite high-intensity treatment. However, prevalence figures of severe asthma are lacking, whereas longstanding estimates vary between 5% and 10% of all asthmatic patients. Knowing the exact prevalence of severe refractory asthma as opposed to difficult-to-control asthma is important for clinical decision making, drug development, and reimbursement policies by health authorities.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Eosinophil-associated TGF-beta1 mRNA expression and airways fibrosis in bronchial asthma.

            The histopathology of bronchial asthma is associated with structural changes within the airways, including subepithelial fibrosis, as well as chronic eosinophilic inflammation. The mechanisms responsible for this tissue remodeling, and in particular the role of inflammatory cells, remain to be established. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent profibrotic cytokine which may contribute to the thickening of the reticular lamina by the deposition of collagen fibers. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these structural changes, we have investigated the expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA and immunoreactivity within the bronchial mucosa of mild to severe asthmatic individuals and normal control subjects using the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. As eosinophils are prominent within the asthmatic airway and are known to synthesize pro-inflammatory cytokines, the presence of TGF-beta1 mRNA and immunoreactive protein in eosinophils was also examined. Asthmatic individuals exhibited a greater expression of TGF-beta1 mRNA and immunoreactivity in the airways submucosa than normal control subjects (P < 0.05), and these increases were directly related to the severity of the disorder. The extent of airways fibrosis, as detected histochemically, was also increased in asthmatics compared with normal control subjects (P < 0.005). In asthmatic subjects, the presence of subepithelial fibrosis was associated with the severity of the disease and correlated with the decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r2 = 0.78; P < 0.05). Within the asthmatic airways, EG2-positive eosinophils represented the major source of TGF-beta1 mRNA and immunoreactivity. These results provide evidence that TGF-beta1 may play a role in the fibrotic changes occurring within asthmatic airways and that activated eosinophils are a major source of this cytokine.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              A tale of two proteins: differential roles and regulation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-beta signaling.

              Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important growth inhibitor of epithelial cells, and insensitivity to this cytokine results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and can contribute to tumorigenesis. Smad2 and Smad3 are direct mediators of TGF-beta signaling, however little is known about the selective activation of Smad2 versus Smad3. The Smad2 and Smad3 knockout mouse phenotypes and studies comparing Smad2 and Smad3 activation of TGF-beta target genes, suggest that Smad2 and Smad3 have distinct roles in TGF-beta signaling. The observation that TGF-beta inhibits proliferation of Smad3-null mammary gland epithelial cells, whereas Smad3 deficient fibroblasts are only partially growth inhibited, suggests that Smad3 has a different role in epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Herein, the current understanding of Smad2 and Smad3-mediated TGF-beta signaling and their relative roles are discussed, in addition to potential mechanisms for the selective activation of Smad2 versus Smad3. Since alterations in the TGF-beta signaling pathway play an important role in promoting tumorigenesis and cancer progression, methods for therapeutic targeting of the TGF-beta signaling pathway are being pursued. Determining how Smad2 or Smad3 differentially regulate the TGF-beta response may translate into developing more effective strategies for cancer therapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
                Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol
                American Thoracic Society
                1044-1549
                1535-4989
                May 2018
                May 2018
                : 58
                : 5
                : 575-584
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, and
                [2 ]Rutgers Institute for Translational Medicine and Science, Child Health Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey; and
                [3 ]Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
                [5 ]Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
                Article
                10.1165/rcmb.2017-0247OC
                5946330
                28984468
                © 2018

                Comments

                Comment on this article