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      Development of epitope‐based peptide vaccine against novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS‐COV‐2): Immunoinformatics approach

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          Abstract

          Recently, a novel coronavirus (SARS‐COV‐2) emerged which is responsible for the recent outbreak in Wuhan, China. Genetically, it is closely related to SARS‐CoV and MERS‐CoV. The situation is getting worse and worse, therefore, there is an urgent need for designing a suitable peptide vaccine component against the SARS‐COV‐2. Here, we characterized spike glycoprotein to obtain immunogenic epitopes. Next, we chose 13 Major Histocompatibility Complex‐(MHC) I and 3 MHC‐II epitopes, having antigenic properties. These epitopes are usually linked to specific linkers to build vaccine components and molecularly dock on toll‐like receptor‐5 to get binding affinity. Therefore, to provide a fast immunogenic profile of these epitopes, we performed immunoinformatics analysis so that the rapid development of the vaccine might bring this disastrous situation to the end earlier.

          Highlights

          • The potential epitopes of coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐2) are identified.

          • The docking complex of the construct vaccine and TLR5 is described.

          • Peptide‐based vaccine developed and in silico validation is provided.

          • Common epitopes of coronavirus (SARS‐CoV‐2) against B‐cells and T‐cells are listed.

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          Most cited references 18

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin

            Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats 1–4 . Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans 5–7 . Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV.
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              A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster

              Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with a novel coronavirus was reported in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Affected patients were geographically linked with a local wet market as a potential source. No data on person-to-person or nosocomial transmission have been published to date. Methods In this study, we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and microbiological findings of five patients in a family cluster who presented with unexplained pneumonia after returning to Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China, after a visit to Wuhan, and an additional family member who did not travel to Wuhan. Phylogenetic analysis of genetic sequences from these patients were done. Findings From Jan 10, 2020, we enrolled a family of six patients who travelled to Wuhan from Shenzhen between Dec 29, 2019 and Jan 4, 2020. Of six family members who travelled to Wuhan, five were identified as infected with the novel coronavirus. Additionally, one family member, who did not travel to Wuhan, became infected with the virus after several days of contact with four of the family members. None of the family members had contacts with Wuhan markets or animals, although two had visited a Wuhan hospital. Five family members (aged 36–66 years) presented with fever, upper or lower respiratory tract symptoms, or diarrhoea, or a combination of these 3–6 days after exposure. They presented to our hospital (The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen) 6–10 days after symptom onset. They and one asymptomatic child (aged 10 years) had radiological ground-glass lung opacities. Older patients (aged >60 years) had more systemic symptoms, extensive radiological ground-glass lung changes, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The nasopharyngeal or throat swabs of these six patients were negative for known respiratory microbes by point-of-care multiplex RT-PCR, but five patients (four adults and the child) were RT-PCR positive for genes encoding the internal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and surface Spike protein of this novel coronavirus, which were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these five patients' RT-PCR amplicons and two full genomes by next-generation sequencing showed that this is a novel coronavirus, which is closest to the bat severe acute respiatory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses found in Chinese horseshoe bats. Interpretation Our findings are consistent with person-to-person transmission of this novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings, and the reports of infected travellers in other geographical regions. Funding The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Seak-Kan Tong, Respiratory Viral Research Foundation Limited, Hui Ming, Hui Hoy and Chow Sin Lan Charity Fund Limited, Marina Man-Wai Lee, the Hong Kong Hainan Commercial Association South China Microbiology Research Fund, Sanming Project of Medicine (Shenzhen), and High Level-Hospital Program (Guangdong Health Commission).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                123sslee@gmail.com
                drchiranjib@yahoo.com
                Journal
                J Med Virol
                J. Med. Virol
                10.1002/(ISSN)1096-9071
                JMV
                Journal of Medical Virology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0146-6615
                1096-9071
                05 March 2020
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Institute for Skeletal Aging and Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University‐Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital Chuncheon‐si Gangwon‐do Republic of Korea
                [ 2 ] Department of Zoology Vidyasagar University Midnapore West Bengal India
                [ 3 ] Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University Chuncheon Republic of Korea
                [ 4 ] Department of Biotechnology School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Adamas University Kolkata West Bengal India
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence Sang‐Soo Lee, MD, PhD, Institute for Skeletal Aging and Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University‐Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon‐si, Gangwon‐do 24252, Korea.

                Email: 123sslee@ 123456gmail.com

                Chiranjib Chakraborty, PhD, Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Adamas University, Barasat‐Barrackpore Rd, Jagannathpur, Kolkata, West Bengal 700126, India.

                Email: drchiranjib@ 123456yahoo.com

                Article
                JMV25736
                10.1002/jmv.25736
                7228377
                32108359
                © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 14, Words: 3325
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Hallym University Research Fund
                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100003725;
                Award ID: NRF‐2017R1A2B4012944
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                corrected-proof
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.8.0 mode:remove_FC converted:15.04.2020

                Microbiology & Virology

                epitopes, immunoinformatics, sars‐cov‐2, vaccine

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