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      Granulomatose avec polyangéite du sujet âgé: à propos de deux cas et revue de la literature Translated title: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the elderly: report of two cases and review of literature

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          Abstract

          La granulomatose avec polyangéite (GPA) est une vascularite nécrosante des vaisseaux de petit calibre. L’âge moyen d'entrée dans la GPA est entre 35 et 55 ans, les formes gériatriques sont cependant rares, Nous rapportons deux cas de GPA révélés après 60 ans, le mode de révélation était inhabituel, ophtalmologique dans le premier cas et cutané dans le deuxième cas.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Nomenclature of systemic vasculitides. Proposal of an international consensus conference.

          The following are some of the conclusions and proposals made at the Chapel Hill Consensus Conference on the Nomenclature of Systemic Vasculitis. 1. Although not a prerequisite component of the definitions, patient age is recognized as a useful discriminator between Takayasu arteritis and giant cell (temporal) arteritis. 2. The name "polyarteritis nodosa," or alternatively, the name "classic polyarteritis nodosa," is restricted to disease in which there is arteritis in medium-sized and small arteries without involvement of smaller vessels. Therefore, patients with vasculitis affecting arterioles, venules, or capillaries, including glomerular capillaries (i.e., with glomerulonephritis), are excluded from this diagnostic category. 3. The name "Wegener's granulomatosis" is restricted to patients with granulomatous inflammation. Patients with exclusively nongranulomatous small vessel vasculitis involving the upper or lower respiratory tract (e.g., alveolar capillaritis) fall into the category of microscopic polyangiitis (microscopic polyarteritis). 4. The term "hypersensitivity vasculitis" is not used. Most patients who would have been given this diagnosis fall into the category of microscopic polyangiitis (microscopic polyarteritis) or cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis. 5. The name "microscopic polyangiitis," or alternatively, "microscopic polyarteritis," connotes pauci-immune (i.e., few or no immune deposits) necrotizing vasculitis affecting small vessels, with or without involvement of medium-sized arteries. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and other forms of immune complex-mediated small vessel vasculitis must be ruled out to make this diagnosis. 6. The name "cutaneous leukocytoclastic angiitis" is restricted to vasculitis in the skin without involvement of vessels in any other organ. 7. Mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome must be present to make a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Wegener granulomatosis: an analysis of 158 patients.

            To prospectively study the clinical features, pathophysiology, treatment and prognosis of Wegener granulomatosis. Of the 180 patients with Wegener granulomatosis referred to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases during the past 24 years, 158 have been followed for 6 months to 24 years (a total of 1229 patient-years). Characteristics of clinical presentation, surgical pathology, course of illness, laboratory and radiographic findings, and the results of medical and surgical treatment have been recorded in a computer-based information retrieval system. The Warren Magnuson Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Men and women were equally represented; 97% of patients were white, and 85% were more than 19 years of age. The mean period of follow-up was 8 years. One hundred and thirty-three patients (84%) received "standard" therapy with daily low-dose cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Eight (5.0%) received only low-dose cyclophosphamide. Six (4.0%) never received cyclophosphamide and were treated with other cytotoxic agents and glucocorticoids. Ten patients (6.0%) were treated with only glucocorticoids. Ninety-one percent of patients experienced marked improvement, and 75% achieved complete remission. Fifty percent of remissions were associated with one or more relapses. Of 99 patients followed for greater than 5 years, 44% had remissions of greater than 5 years duration. Thirteen percent of patients died of Wegener granulomatosis, treatment-related causes, or both. Almost all patients had serious morbidity from irreversible features of their disease (86%) or side effects of treatment (42%). The course of Wegener granulomatosis has been dramatically improved by daily treatment with cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids. Nonetheless, disease- and treatment-related morbidity is often profound. Alternative forms of therapy have not yet achieved the high rates of remission induction and successful maintenance that have been reported with daily cyclophosphamide treatment. Despite continued therapeutic success with cyclophosphamide, our long-term follow-up of patients with Wegener granulomatosis has led to increasing concerns about toxicity resulting from prolonged cyclophosphamide therapy and has encouraged investigation of other therapeutic regimens.
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              The Five-Factor Score revisited: assessment of prognoses of systemic necrotizing vasculitides based on the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG) cohort.

              The 1996 Five-Factor Score (FFS) for systemic necrotizing vasculitides (polyarteritis nodosa [PAN], microscopic polyangiitis [MPA], and Churg-Strauss syndrome [CSS]) is used to evaluate prognosis at diagnosis. In the current study we revisited the FFS, this time including Wegener granulomatosis (WG).We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and immunologic manifestations present at diagnosis of systemic necrotizing vasculitides for 1108 consecutive patients registered in the French Vasculitis Study Group database. All patients met the American College of Rheumatology and Chapel Hill nomenclature criteria. Univariable and multivariable analyses yielded the 2009 FFS for the 4 systemic necrotizing vasculitides.Overall mortality was 19.8% (219/1108); mortality for each of the SNV is listed in descending order: MPA (60/218, 27.5%), PAN (86/349, 24.6%), CSS (32/230, 13.9%), and WG (41/311, 13.2%) (p 65 years, cardiac symptoms, gastrointestinal involvement, and renal insufficiency (stabilized peak creatinine ≥150 μmol/L). All were disease-specific (p < 0.001); the presence of each was accorded +1 point. Ear, nose, and throat (ENT) symptoms, affecting patients with WG and CSS, were associated with a lower relative risk of death, and their absence was scored +1 point (p < 0.001). Only renal insufficiency was retained (not proteinuria or microscopic hematuria) as impinging on outcome. According to the 2009 FFS, 5-year mortality rates for scores of 0, 1, and ≥2 were 9%, 21% (p < 0.005), and 40% (p < 0.0001), respectively.The revised FFS for the 4 systemic necrotizing vasculitides now comprises 4 factors associated with poorer prognosis and 1 with better outcome. The retained items demonstrate that visceral involvement weighs heavily on outcome. The better WG prognosis for patients with ENT manifestations, even for patients with other visceral involvement, compared with the prognosis for those without ENT manifestations, probably reflects WG phenotype heterogeneity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pan Afr Med J
                Pan Afr Med J
                PAMJ
                The Pan African Medical Journal
                The African Field Epidemiology Network
                1937-8688
                10 April 2015
                2015
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Service de Médecine Interne, Hopital Taher Sfar, Mahdia, Tunisie
                [2 ]Service de Médecine Interne, Hopital Fattouma Bourguiba, Monastir, Tunisie
                [3 ]Unité De Médecine Physique, Hopital Taher Sfar, Mahdia, Tunisie
                Author notes
                [& ]Corresponding author: Olfa Berriche, Service de Médecine Interne, Hopital Taher Sfar, Mahdia, Tunisie
                Article
                PAMJ-20-341
                10.11604/pamj.2015.20.341.6618
                4491465
                © Olfa Berriche et al.

                The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report

                Medicine

                granulomatose, sujets âgés, vascularite, granulomatosis, elderly, vascularitis

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