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      Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome

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          Abstract

          It is widely believed that the cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) exists as an entity distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, and that it is characterized by evidence of severe renal salt wasting that results in volume depletion and hyponatremia. Proof of the existence of CSWS as an entity requires documentation of renal salt wasting and volume depletion. The present review has been undertaken to examine the evidence that the CSWS is a separate entity. In this effort, we have discussed various methods of documentation of volume depletion, and then reviewed reported cases of CSWS to determine whether volume depletion and renal salt wasting have been clearly demonstrated. Our review has led us to conclude that not one case of purported CSWS has demonstrated clear evidence of volume depletion and renal salt wasting. If renal salt wasting had been proven in these cases, we would conclude that the likely site of renal salt transport was the proximal tubule. The proximal site of salt transport defect has been suggested by the absence of hyperreninemia and hypokalemia, which would be a distinguishing feature of Bartter’s syndrome and Gitelman’s syndrome.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Bartter's syndrome, hypokalaemic alkalosis with hypercalciuria, is caused by mutations in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.

          Inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis with low blood pressure can be divided into two groups-Gitelman's syndrome, featuring hypocalciuria, hypomagnesaemia and milder clinical manifestations, and Bartter's syndrome, featuring hypercalciuria and early presentation with severe volume depletion. Mutations in the renal Na-Cl cotransporter have been shown to cause Gitelman's syndrome. We demonstrate linkage of Bartter's syndrome to the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene NKCC2, and identify frameshift or non-conservative missense mutations for this gene that co-segregate with the disease. These findings demonstrate the molecular basis of Bartter's syndrome, provide the basis for molecular classification of patients with inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, and suggest potential phenotypes in heterozygous carriers of NKCC2 mutations.
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            Secretion of brain natriuretic peptide in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

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              Plasma natriuretic factor(s) in patients with intracranial disease, renal salt wasting and hyperuricosuria

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                1999
                June 1999
                04 June 1999
                : 82
                : 2
                : 110-114
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, State University of New York, Health Science Center at Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
                Article
                45385 Nephron 1999;82:110–114
                10.1159/000045385
                10364701
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 33, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45385
                Categories
                Controversies in Nephrology<br>Section Editor: Prof. Man S. Oh (Brooklyn, N.Y.)

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