A novel type of cellular-uptake-shielding multifunctional envelope-type mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MEMSN) was designed for tumor-triggered targeting drug delivery to cancerous cells. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) was anchored on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles via disulfide linking for glutathione-induced intracellular drug release. Then a peptide sequence containing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) substrate peptide Pro-Leu-Gly-Val-Arg (PLGVR) was introduced onto the surface of the nanoparticles via host-guest interaction. To protect the targeting ligand and prevent the nanoparticles from being uptaken by normal cells, the nanoparticles were further decorated with poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) to obtain MEMSN. In vitro study demonstrated that MEMSN was shielded against normal cells. After reaching the tumor cells, the targeting property could be switched on by removing the PASP protection layer via hydrolyzation of PLGVR at the MMP-rich tumor cells, which enabled the easy uptake of drug-loaded nanoparticles by tumor cells and subsequent glutathione-induced drug release intracellularly.