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      Oestrogen Receptor Beta Is Not Present in the Pilosebaceous Unit of Red Deer Skin during the Non-Breeding Season

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          Abstract

          Androgens and oestrogens both have roles in skin physiology. Recently a second oestrogen receptor (ERβ) has been identified in androgen-dependent tissues. The red deer grows a breeding season, androgen-dependent mane when plasma testosterone rises; this is replaced with small neck hairs during the non-breeding season. In non-breeding season deer skin, ERβ was localised to the blood vessels and arrector pili muscle, but in contrast to human skin, not in the pilosebaceous unit or epidermis. The androgen receptor was not expressed. Further studies with breeding season skin may help to elucidate whether serum androgens or androgen receptor expression can modulate the expression of ERβ in skin.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Cloning of a novel receptor expressed in rat prostate and ovary.

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            An estrogen receptor pathway regulates the telogen-anagen hair follicle transition and influences epidermal cell proliferation.

            The hair follicle is a cyclic, self renewing epidermal structure which is thought to be controlled by signals from the dermal papilla, a specialized cluster of mesenchymal cells within the dermis. Topical treatments with 17-beta-estradiol to the clipped dorsal skin of mice arrested hair follicles in telogen and produced a profound and prolonged inhibition of hair growth while treatment with the biologically inactive stereoisomer, 17-alpha-estradiol, did not inhibit hair growth. Topical treatments with ICI 182,780, a pure estrogen receptor antagonist, caused the hair follicles to exit telogen and enter anagen, thereby initiating hair growth. Immunohistochemical staining for the estrogen receptor in skin revealed intense and specific staining of the nuclei of the cells of the dermal papilla. The expression of the estrogen receptor in the dermal papilla was hair cycle-dependent with the highest levels of expression associated with the telogen follicle. 17-beta-Estradiol-treated epidermis demonstrated a similar number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd) S-phase cells as the control epidermis above telogen follicles; however, the number of BrdUrd S-phase basal cells in the control epidermis varied according to the phase of the cycle of the underlying hair follicles and ranged from 2.6% above telogen follicles to 7.0% above early anagen follicles. These findings indicate an estrogen receptor pathway within the dermal papilla regulates the telogen-anagen follicle transition and suggest that diffusible factors associated with the anagen follicle influence cell proliferation in the epidermis.
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              Estrogen binding sites in hamster white adipose tissue: sex- and site-related variations; modulation by testosterone.

              Estrogen binding sites (ER) were studied, using 17 beta-[3H]estradiol as the ligand, in epididymal or parametrial and subcutaneous adipose tissues of male and female hamsters. Compared with other mammalian fat deposits, intact male and female hamsters possess abundant estrogen binding sites with moderate affinity for estradiol and which occur as a single class of receptor in males but as two populations in females. The levels of estrogen receptors depend on both sex and tissue localization. In males, receptor densities are higher in both localizations when compared to those of females and ER are more abundant in superficial adipose deposits than in the deep fat tissue. In females, there are two estrogen binding populations; the one with the highest affinity is similar to the classical estrogen receptor and both populations are more abundant in deep fat than in subcutaneous deposits, in contrast to male hamsters. These characteristics depend on androgen status: in male adipose tissues, testosterone (TP) up-regulates the ER levels. Conversely, in female fat deposits, TP down-regulates the highest affinity estrogen receptors and the lowest affinity population disappears. Binding affinities are never affected by testosterone. These results suggest that, in hamster adipose tissue, estrogen receptors exhibit site- and sex-related differences, as previously described for androgen receptors. Furthermore, estrogen receptor expression is modulated by the androgen status, depending on gender, which could be related to some physiological situations observed in the hamster.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7317-7
                978-3-318-00781-7
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2000
                2000
                28 September 2001
                : 54
                : 5-6
                : 259-262
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK and bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK
                Article
                53268 Horm Res 2000;54:259–262
                10.1159/000053268
                11595814
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 4
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