Blog
About

47
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Computational Identification and Functional Predictions of Long Noncoding RNA in Zea mays

      , *

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Computational analysis of cDNA sequences from multiple organisms suggests that a large portion of transcribed DNA does not code for a functional protein. In mammals, noncoding transcription is abundant, and often results in functional RNA molecules that do not appear to encode proteins. Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) appear to have epigenetic regulatory function in humans, including HOTAIR and XIST. While epigenetic gene regulation is clearly an essential mechanism in plants, relatively little is known about the presence or function of lncRNAs in plants.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          To explore the connection between lncRNA and epigenetic regulation of gene expression in plants, a computational pipeline using the programming language Python has been developed and applied to maize full length cDNA sequences to identify, classify, and localize potential lncRNAs. The pipeline was used in parallel with an SVM tool for identifying ncRNAs to identify the maximal number of ncRNAs in the dataset. Although the available library of sequences was small and potentially biased toward protein coding transcripts, 15% of the sequences were predicted to be noncoding. Approximately 60% of these sequences appear to act as precursors for small RNA molecules and may function to regulate gene expression via a small RNA dependent mechanism. ncRNAs were predicted to originate from both genic and intergenic loci. Of the lncRNAs that originated from genic loci, ∼20% were antisense to the host gene loci.

          Conclusions/Significance

          Consistent with similar studies in other organisms, noncoding transcription appears to be widespread in the maize genome. Computational predictions indicate that maize lncRNAs may function to regulate expression of other genes through multiple RNA mediated mechanisms.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 78

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Basic local alignment search tool.

          A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            miRBase: tools for microRNA genomics

            miRBase is the central online repository for microRNA (miRNA) nomenclature, sequence data, annotation and target prediction. The current release (10.0) contains 5071 miRNA loci from 58 species, expressing 5922 distinct mature miRNA sequences: a growth of over 2000 sequences in the past 2 years. miRBase provides a range of data to facilitate studies of miRNA genomics: all miRNAs are mapped to their genomic coordinates. Clusters of miRNA sequences in the genome are highlighted, and can be defined and retrieved with any inter-miRNA distance. The overlap of miRNA sequences with annotated transcripts, both protein- and non-coding, are described. Finally, graphical views of the locations of a wide range of genomic features in model organisms allow for the first time the prediction of the likely boundaries of many miRNA primary transcripts. miRBase is available at http://microrna.sanger.ac.uk/.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals.

              There is growing recognition that mammalian cells produce many thousands of large intergenic transcripts. However, the functional significance of these transcripts has been particularly controversial. Although there are some well-characterized examples, most (>95%) show little evidence of evolutionary conservation and have been suggested to represent transcriptional noise. Here we report a new approach to identifying large non-coding RNAs using chromatin-state maps to discover discrete transcriptional units intervening known protein-coding loci. Our approach identified approximately 1,600 large multi-exonic RNAs across four mouse cell types. In sharp contrast to previous collections, these large intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) show strong purifying selection in their genomic loci, exonic sequences and promoter regions, with greater than 95% showing clear evolutionary conservation. We also developed a functional genomics approach that assigns putative functions to each lincRNA, demonstrating a diverse range of roles for lincRNAs in processes from embryonic stem cell pluripotency to cell proliferation. We obtained independent functional validation for the predictions for over 100 lincRNAs, using cell-based assays. In particular, we demonstrate that specific lincRNAs are transcriptionally regulated by key transcription factors in these processes such as p53, NFkappaB, Sox2, Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) and Nanog. Together, these results define a unique collection of functional lincRNAs that are highly conserved and implicated in diverse biological processes.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                16 August 2012
                : 7
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America
                Sun Yat-sen University, China
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: SB KMM. Performed the experiments: SB. Analyzed the data: SB KMM. Wrote the paper: SB KMM.

                Article
                PONE-D-12-12079
                10.1371/journal.pone.0043047
                3420876
                22916204

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 16
                Funding
                This work was funded by the National Science Foundation and Genome Systems grant through award number MCB-027129 to KMM. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Agriculture
                Crops
                Cereals
                Maize
                Biology
                Biochemistry
                Nucleic Acids
                RNA
                Computational Biology
                Genomics
                Epigenomics
                Genetics
                Epigenetics
                Gene Expression
                Genomics
                Genome Analysis Tools
                Plant Science
                Plant Genomics

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article