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      Implications of Levels of Serum Mineral Metabolism Markers, Albumin and C-Reactive Protein for Treatment Costs of Patients on Maintenance Dialysis

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          Abstract

          Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism, malnutrition and inflammation have been reported to associate with adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. However, little is known about the implications of these conditions for treatment costs. Methods: The cost data of all adult patients who had entered dialysis therapy at Tampere University Hospital between 1991 and 1996 and had remained on dialysis for at least 1 year were collected. Results of measurements of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were obtained from the database of the hospital. Results: Patients (n = 109), aged 57.0 ± 14.9 years, included 57% men and 37% diabetics; 62% started on hemodialysis and 38% on peritoneal dialysis. Average daily costs were USD 161 (range 95–360). After controlling for patients’ age, body mass index, gender, dialysis modality and primary renal disease, there was a positive correlation between average CRP and average costs and a negative correlation between albumin and costs. Correlations between mineral metabolism markers and costs were not found, but there was a trend towards lower cost among patients who achieved the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative targets of calcium, phosphorus and PTH (USD 145 ± 31) compared with those with nonoptimal levels (USD 165 ± 48; p = 0.095). Costs of patients with at least one in-target PTH measurement were lower than costs of patients with constantly low PTH (USD 148 ± 31 vs. 170 ± 48; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Serum levels of albumin and CRP correlated with dialysis patients’ treatment costs. Achieving the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative targets may be associated with lower costs.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Are there two types of malnutrition in chronic renal failure? Evidence for relationships between malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome).

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            Effect of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome on EPO hyporesponsiveness in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

            Elements of malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) may blunt the responsiveness of anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) to recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO). The authors examined cross-sectional associations between the required dose of EPO within a 13-week interval as prescribed by practicing nephrologists who were blind to the study and several laboratory values known to be related to nutrition and/or inflammation, as well as the malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), which is a fully quantitative assessment tool based on the subjective global assessment of nutrition. A total of 339 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) outpatients, including 181 men, who were aged 54.7 +/- 14.5 years (mean +/- SD), who had undergone dialysis for 36.3 +/- 33.2 months, were selected randomly from 7 DaVita dialysis units in Los Angeles South/East Bay area. The average weekly dose of administered recombinant human EPO within a 13-week interval was 217 +/- 187 U/kg. Patients were receiving intravenous iron supplementation (iron gluconate or dextran) averaging 39.5 +/- 47.5 mg/wk. The MIS and serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and lactate dehydrogenase had positive correlation with required EPO dose and EPO responsiveness index (EPO divided by hemoglobin), whereas serum total iron binding capacity (TIBC), prealbumin and total cholesterol, as well as blood lymphocyte count had statistically significant but negative correlations with indices of refractory anemia. Most correlations remained significant even after multivariate adjustment for case-mix and anemia factors and other relevant covariates. Similar associations were noticed across EPO per body weight tertiles via analysis of variance and after estimating odds ratio for higher versus lower tertile via logistic regression after same case-mix adjustment. The existence of elements of MICS as indicated by a high MIS and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 as well as decreased nutritional values such as low serum concentrations of total cholesterol, prealbumin, and TIBC correlates with EPO hyporesponsiveness in MHD patients.
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              Effects of the calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl on cardiovascular disease, fracture, and health-related quality of life in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

              Secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and abnormal mineral metabolism are thought to play an important role in bone and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic that modulates the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and lowers serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and secondary HPT. We undertook a combined analysis of safety data (parathyroidectomy, fracture, hospitalizations, and mortality) from 4 similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials enrolling 1184 subjects (697 cinacalcet, 487 control) with ESRD and uncontrolled secondary HPT (intact PTH > or =300 pg/mL). Cinacalcet or placebo was administered to subjects receiving standard care for hyperphosphatemia and secondary HPT (phosphate binders and vitamin D). Relative risks (RR) and 95% CI were calculated using proportional hazards regression with follow-up times from 6 to 12 months. Health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data were obtained from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Cognitive Functioning scale from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument (KDQOL-CF). Randomization to cinacalcet resulted in significant reductions in the risk of parathyroidectomy (RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.55), fracture (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95), and cardiovascular hospitalization (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86) compared with placebo. Changes in HRQOL favored cinacalcet, with significant changes observed for the SF-36 Physical Component Summary score and the specific domains of Bodily Pain and General Health Perception. Combining results from 4 clinical trials, randomization to cinacalcet led to significant reductions in the risk of parathyroidectomy, fracture, and cardiovascular hospitalization, along with improvements in self-reported physical function and diminished pain. These data suggest that, in addition to its effects on PTH and mineral metabolism, cinacalcet had favorable effects on important clinical outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                May 2007
                07 March 2007
                : 106
                : 1
                : c17-c23
                Affiliations
                aMedical School, bDepartment of Mathematics, Statistics and Philosophy, University of Tampere, and cDepartment of Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
                Article
                100497 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c17–c23
                10.1159/000100497
                17347578
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 19, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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