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      Stereotactic body radiotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer: five-year outcomes

      , 1 , 2

      Radiation Oncology (London, England)

      BioMed Central

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          Hypofractionated, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging treatment approach for prostate cancer. We present the outcomes for low-risk prostate cancer patients with a median follow-up of 5 years after SBRT.

          Method and Materials

          Between Dec. 2003 and Dec. 2005, a pooled cohort of 41 consecutive patients from Stanford, CA and Naples, FL received SBRT with CyberKnife for clinically localized, low-risk prostate cancer. Prescribed dose was 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions. No patient received hormone therapy. Kaplan-Meier biochemical progression-free survival (defined using the Phoenix method) and RTOG toxicity outcomes were assessed.


          At a median follow-up of 5 years, the biochemical progression-free survival was 93% (95% CI = 84.7% to 100%). Acute side effects resolved within 1-3 months of treatment completion. There were no grade 4 toxicities. No late grade 3 rectal toxicity occurred, and only one late grade 3 genitourinary toxicity occurred following repeated urologic instrumentation.


          Five-year results of SBRT for localized prostate cancer demonstrate the efficacy and safety of shorter courses of high dose per fraction radiation delivered with SBRT technique. Ongoing clinical trials are underway to further explore this treatment approach.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Stereotactic hypofractionated accurate radiotherapy of the prostate (SHARP), 33.5 Gy in five fractions for localized disease: first clinical trial results.

          To evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of stereotactic hypofractionated accurate radiotherapy (SHARP) for localized prostate cancer. A Phase I/II trial of SHARP performed for localized prostate cancer using 33.5 Gy in 5 fractions, calculated to be biologically equivalent to 78 Gy in 2 Gy fractions (alpha/beta ratio of 1.5 Gy). Noncoplanar conformal fields and daily stereotactic localization of implanted fiducials were used for treatment. Genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were evaluated by American Urologic Association (AUA) score and Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and self-reported sexual function were recorded at specified follow-up intervals. The study includes 40 patients. The median follow-up is 41 months (range, 21-60 months). Acute toxicity Grade 1-2 was 48.5% (GU) and 39% (GI); 1 acute Grade 3 GU toxicity. Late Grade 1-2 toxicity was 45% (GU) and 37% (GI). No late Grade 3 or higher toxicity was reported. Twenty-six patients reported potency before therapy; 6 (23%) have developed impotence. Median time to PSA nadir was 18 months with the majority of nadirs less than 1.0 ng/mL. The actuarial 48-month biochemical freedom from relapse is 70% for the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition and 90% by the alternative nadir + 2 ng/mL failure definition. SHARP for localized prostate cancer is feasible with minimal acute or late toxicity. Dose escalation should be possible.
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            Intrafractional motion of the prostate during hypofractionated radiotherapy.

            To report the characteristics of prostate motion as tracked by the stereoscopic X-ray images of the implanted fiducials during hypofractionated radiotherapy with CyberKnife. Twenty-one patients with prostate cancer who were treated with CyberKnife between January 2005 and September 2007 were selected for this retrospective study. The CyberKnife uses a stereoscopic X-ray system to obtain the position of the prostate target through the monitoring of implanted gold fiducial markers. If there is a significant deviation, the treatment is paused while the patient is repositioned by moving the couch. The deviations calculated from X-ray images acquired within the time interval between two consecutive couch motions constitute a data set. Included in the analysis were 427 data sets and 4,439 time stamps of X-ray images. The mean duration for each data set was 697 sec. At 30 sec, a motion >2 mm exists in about 5% of data sets. The percentage is increased to 8%, 11%, and 14% at 60 sec, 90 sec, and 120 sec, respectively. A similar trend exists for other values of prostate motion. With proper monitoring and intervention during treatment, the prostate shifts observed among patients can be kept within the tracking range of the CyberKnife. On average, a sampling rate of approximately 40 sec between consecutive X-rays is acceptable to ensure submillimeter tracking. However, there is significant movement variation among patients, and a higher sampling rate may be necessary in some patients.
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              Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: interim results of a prospective phase II clinical trial.

              The radiobiology of prostate cancer favors a hypofractionated dose regimen. We report results of a prospective Phase II clinical trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer. Forty-one low-risk prostate cancer patients with 6 months' minimum follow-up received 36.25 Gy in five fractions of 7.25 Gy with image-guided SBRT alone using the CyberKnife. The early ( 6 months) urinary and rectal toxicities were assessed using validated quality of life questionnaires (International Prostate Symptom Score, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite) and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity criteria. Patterns of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response are analyzed. The median follow-up was 33 months. There were no RTOG Grade 4 acute or late rectal/urinary complications. There were 2 patients with RTOG Grade 3 late urinary toxicity and none with RTOG Grade 3 rectal complications. A reduced rate of severe rectal toxicities was observed with every-other-day vs. 5 consecutive days treatment regimen (0% vs. 38%, p = 0.0035). A benign PSA bounce (median, 0.4 ng/mL) was observed in 12 patients (29%) occurring at 18 months (median) after treatment. At last follow-up, no patient has had a PSA failure regardless of biochemical failure definition. Of 32 patients with 12 months minimum follow-up, 25 patients (78%) achieved a PSA nadir

                Author and article information

                Radiat Oncol
                Radiation Oncology (London, England)
                BioMed Central
                10 January 2011
                : 6
                : 3
                [1 ]Naples Radiation Oncology, PA, USA
                [2 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, UCLA School of Medicine, CA, USA
                Copyright ©2011 Freeman and King; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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