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      Chitin and Chitosan Preparation from Marine Sources. Structure, Properties and Applications


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          This review describes the most common methods for recovery of chitin from marine organisms. In depth, both enzymatic and chemical treatments for the step of deproteinization are compared, as well as different conditions for demineralization. The conditions of chitosan preparation are also discussed, since they significantly impact the synthesis of chitosan with varying degree of acetylation (DA) and molecular weight (MW). In addition, the main characterization techniques applied for chitin and chitosan are recalled, pointing out the role of their solubility in relation with the chemical structure (mainly the acetyl group distribution along the backbone). Biological activities are also presented, such as: antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant. Interestingly, the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity is demonstrated for chitosan molecules with different DA and MW and homogeneous distribution of acetyl groups for the first time. In the end, several selected pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are presented, in which chitin and chitosan are recognized as new biomaterials taking advantage of their biocompatibility and biodegradability.

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          A review of chitin and chitosan applications

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            Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging.

            Metabolism, like other aspects of life, involves tradeoffs. Oxidant by-products of normal metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, protein, and lipid. We argue that this damage (the same as that produced by radiation) is a major contributor to aging and to degenerative diseases of aging such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune-system decline, brain dysfunction, and cataracts. Antioxidant defenses against this damage include ascorbate, tocopherol, and carotenoids. Dietary fruits and vegetables are the principal source of ascorbate and carotenoids and are one source of tocopherol. Low dietary intake of fruits and vegetables doubles the risk of most types of cancer as compared to high intake and also markedly increases the risk of heart disease and cataracts. Since only 9% of Americans eat the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, the opportunity for improving health by improving diet is great.
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              Application of chitosan-based polysaccharide biomaterials in cartilage tissue engineering: a review.

              Once damaged, articular cartilage has very little capacity for spontaneous healing because of the avascular nature of the tissue. Although many repair techniques have been proposed over the past four decades, none has sucessfully regenerated long-lasting hyaline cartilage tissue to replace damaged cartilage. Tissue engineering approaches, such as transplantation of isolated chondrocytes, have recently demonstrated tremendous clinical potential for regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage tissue and treatment of chondral lesions. As such a new approach emerges, new important questions arise. One of such questions is: what kinds of biomaterials can be used with chondrocytes to tissue-engineer articular cartilage? The success of chondrocyte transplantation and/or the quality of neocartilage formation strongly depend on the specific cell-carrier material. The present article reviews some of those biomaterials, which have been suggested to promote chondrogenesis and to have potentials for tissue engineering of articular cartilage. A new biomaterial, a chitosan-based polysaccharide hydrogel, is also introduced and discussed in terms of the biocompatibility with chondrocytes.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                Marine Drugs
                02 March 2015
                March 2015
                : 13
                : 3
                : 1133-1174
                [1 ]Laboratory of Enzyme Engineering and Microbiology, University of Sfax, National School of Engineering, PO Box 1173-3038, Sfax, Tunisia; E-Mail: islem.younes@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Biomaterials Applications, 6 rue Lesdiguières, Grenoble 38000, France
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: marguerite.rinaudo@ 123456sfr.fr ; Tel.: +336-1143-4806.
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 26 December 2014
                : 16 February 2015

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                chitin,chitosan,chemical and enzymatic deproteinization,demineralization,characterization,deacetylation,biological activities,biomedical applications


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