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      Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays

      , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 4 , 14 , 15 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 19 , 29 , 41 , 12 , 12 , 42 , 25 , 38 , 43 , 20 , 21 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 44 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 38 , 5 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 23 , 33 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 46 , 48 , 66 , 19 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 66 , 22 , 53 , 48 , 50 , 72 , 70 , 22 , 36 , 46 , 54 , 71 , , 11


      Angiogenesis, Aortic ring, Endothelial cell migration, Proliferation, Microfluidic, Zebrafish, Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), Vascular network, Intussusceptive angiogenesis, Retinal vasculature, Corneal angiogenesis, Hindlimb ischemia, Myocardial angiogenesis, Recombinant proteins, Tip cells, Plug assay, Myocardial angiogenesis, Vessel co-option

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          The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.

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          Most cited references 581

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          Efficient In Vivo Genome Editing Using RNA-Guided Nucleases

          Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems have evolved in bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism to silence foreign nucleic acids of viruses and plasmids. Recent work has shown that bacterial type II CRISPR systems can be adapted to create guide RNAs (gRNAs) capable of directing site-specific DNA cleavage by the Cas9 nuclease in vitro. Here we show that this system can function in vivo to induce targeted genetic modifications in zebrafish embryos with efficiencies comparable to those obtained using ZFNs and TALENs for the same genes. RNA-guided nucleases robustly enabled genome editing at 9 of 11 different sites tested, including two for which TALENs previously failed to induce alterations. These results demonstrate that programmable CRISPR/Cas systems provide a simple, rapid, and highly scalable method for altering genes in vivo, opening the door to using RNA-guided nucleases for genome editing in a wide range of organisms.
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            The Tol2kit: a multisite gateway-based construction kit for Tol2 transposon transgenesis constructs.

            Transgenesis is an important tool for assessing gene function. In zebrafish, transgenesis has suffered from three problems: the labor of building complex expression constructs using conventional subcloning; low transgenesis efficiency, leading to mosaicism in transient transgenics and infrequent germline incorporation; and difficulty in identifying germline integrations unless using a fluorescent marker transgene. The Tol2kit system uses site-specific recombination-based cloning (multisite Gateway technology) to allow quick, modular assembly of [promoter]-[coding sequence]-[3' tag] constructs in a Tol2 transposon backbone. It includes a destination vector with a cmlc2:EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) transgenesis marker and a variety of widely useful entry clones, including hsp70 and beta-actin promoters; cytoplasmic, nuclear, and membrane-localized fluorescent proteins; and internal ribosome entry sequence-driven EGFP cassettes for bicistronic expression. The Tol2kit greatly facilitates zebrafish transgenesis, simplifies the sharing of clones, and enables large-scale projects testing the functions of libraries of regulatory or coding sequences. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Innovation: Metabolomics: the apogee of the omics trilogy.

              Metabolites, the chemical entities that are transformed during metabolism, provide a functional readout of cellular biochemistry. With emerging technologies in mass spectrometry, thousands of metabolites can now be quantitatively measured from minimal amounts of biological material, which has thereby enabled systems-level analyses. By performing global metabolite profiling, also known as untargeted metabolomics, new discoveries linking cellular pathways to biological mechanism are being revealed and are shaping our understanding of cell biology, physiology and medicine.

                Author and article information

                19 June 2018
                August 2018
                01 August 2019
                : 21
                : 3
                : 425-532
                [1 ]Molecular Pharmacology Group, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Rue Michel-Servet 1, CMU, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
                [2 ]Translational Research Center in Oncohaematology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                [3 ]Wihuri Research Institute and Translational Cancer Biology Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                [4 ]Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Therapeutic Resistance, Department of Oncology, VIB-Center for Cancer Biology, KU Leuven, Louvain, Belgium
                [5 ]Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                [6 ]University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
                [7 ]European Center for Angioscience, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
                [8 ]Division of Vascular Oncology and Metastasis Research, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
                [9 ]German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany
                [10 ]Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
                [11 ]Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [12 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
                [13 ]Department of Neurological Surgery, Brain Tumor Research Center, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
                [14 ]Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment Laboratory (INSERM U1029), University Bordeaux, Pessac, France
                [15 ]Vascular Biology Program and Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [16 ]Center for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, ME, USA
                [17 ]Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Turin, Italy
                [18 ]Candiolo Cancer Institute-FPO-IRCCS, 10060 Candiolo, Italy
                [19 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [20 ]Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology and Leuven Cancer Institute (LKI), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
                [21 ]Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven, Belgium
                [22 ]Division of Developmental Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
                [23 ]Department of Microscopic Morphology/Histology, Angiogenesis Research Center, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania
                [24 ]Department of Molecular Biology, Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA
                [25 ]Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [26 ]Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, School of Medicine and Dalton Cardiovascular Center, Columbia, MO, USA
                [27 ]School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [28 ]Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                [29 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
                [30 ]Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
                [31 ]Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
                [32 ]Emily Couric Cancer Center, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
                [33 ]Vascular Sciences, Imperial Centre for Translational and Experimental Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
                [34 ]Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, VIB Center for Cancer Biology, Leuven, Belgium
                [35 ]Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven and Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium
                [36 ]University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
                [37 ]Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK
                [38 ]Edwin L. Steele Laboratories, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
                [39 ]Metabolomics Expertise Center, VIB Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven, Belgium
                [40 ]Department of Oncology, Metabolomics Expertise Center, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
                [41 ]Molecular Oncology Laboratories, Oxford University Department of Oncology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK
                [42 ]MCDB, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
                [43 ]Department of Cancer Biology, Metastasis Research Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
                [44 ]Department of Medical Biophysics, Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                [45 ]Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA
                [46 ]Ocular Angiogenesis Group, Departments of Ophthalmology and Medical Biology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                [47 ]The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
                [48 ]Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, Fondation Asile des Aveugles, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [49 ]Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                [50 ]HistoGeneX, Antwerp, Belgium
                [51 ]Department of Cardiac Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
                [52 ]Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA
                [53 ]Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, GIGA-Cancer, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
                [54 ]Department of Biotechnology and Molecular Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
                [55 ]Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
                [56 ]Department of oncology UNIL-CHUV, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
                [57 ]Division of Translational Cancer Research, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund, Sweden
                [58 ]Genitourinary Program, Indiana University-Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA
                [59 ]Medical Research Council Centre for Reproductive Health, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
                [60 ]Department of Physiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                [61 ]Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Department Surgery, LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [62 ]Laboratory of Immunopathology, Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine, National Council of Scientific and Technical Investigations (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [63 ]Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
                [64 ]National Cancer Institute “Giovanni Paolo II”, Bari, Italy
                [65 ]Department of Oncology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
                [66 ]Institute of Cardiovascular Organogenesis and Regeneration, Faculty of Medicine, WWU, Münster, Germany
                [67 ]Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
                [68 ]Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA
                [69 ]Tumour Angiogenesis and Microenvironment Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and The Sir Peter MacCallum, Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
                [70 ]Medical Faculty, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Münster, Germany
                [71 ]Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA
                [72 ]Translational Cancer Research Unit, GZA Hospitals, Sint-Augustinus & University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

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