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      The Prognostic Role of Brain Natriuretic Peptides in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Background: Although plasma concentrations of brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) increase in hemodialysis (HD) patients as well as patients with cardiovascular diseases (CD), the clinical significance of BNP in HD patients has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological significance of BNP in HD patients. Methods: Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in 164 HD patients after HD and 14 healthy volunteers. In 12 patients without CD, BNP was also measured before HD. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the important factors causing increased plasma BNP concentrations. Cardiac mortality was monitored for 36 months after baseline analysis, and the prognostic role of BNP was examined by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: Plasma BNP concentrations of HD patients without CD decreased significantly during HD session (124.5 ± 90.7 vs. 91.4 ± 67.6 pg/ml, mean ± SD, p = 0.004), but were still significantly higher than those of the healthy subjects (9.7 ± 9.2 pg/ml, p = 0.0002). Plasma BNP concentrations of patients with CD were significantly higher than of those without CD (579.6 ± 564.3 vs. 204.0 ± 241.5 pg/ml, p < 0.0001). Plasma BNP concentrations were also significantly higher in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients than in non-DM patients (514.1 ± 585.4 vs. 296.0 ± 347.0 pg/ml, p = 0.0031). Multiple regression analysis showed that left ventricular mass index (LVMI), CD and DM were independent factors for the elevated BNP (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.303, p < 0.0001). During a 36-month follow-up period, cardiac death occurred in 13 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of patients from varying plasma BNP quartiles (<200, 200–450, 450–700 and >700 pg/ml) differed between the four groups (p < 0.0001). The group with the highest BNP level (>700 pg/ml) had the lowest survival. When compared with patients with BNP <200, the hazard ratios for cardiac death of patients with BNP of 200–450, 450–700 and >700 pg/ml were 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14–36.7], 18.7 (1.9–183.4) and 51.9 (6.5–416.3), respectively. The univariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that BNP, left ventricular ejection fraction, LVMI, age, DM, serum albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with the risk of cardiac mortality. By stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, only BNP, LVMI and CRP remained powerful independent predictors of cardiac death. The relative risk ratios were 1.002 (95% CI 1.001–1.002) for BNP, 2.192 (1.532–3.135) for CRP and 1.027 (1.013–1.042) for LVMI. Conclusion: High plasma BNP concentrations in HD patients were associated with volume overload, left ventricular hypertrophy, CD and DM. Plasma BNP concentration may be a useful parameter for assessing the risk of cardiac death in HD patients by providing prognostic information independently of other variables previously reported.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            A new natriuretic peptide in porcine brain.

            Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone secreted from mammalian atria, regulates the homoeostatic balance of body fluid and blood pressure. ANP-like immunoreactivity is also present in the brain, suggesting that the peptide functions as a neuropeptide. We report here identification in porcine brain of a novel peptide of 26 amino-acid residues, eliciting a pharmacological spectrum very similar to that of ANP, such as natriuretic-diuretic, hypotensive and chick rectum relaxant activities. The complete amino-acid sequence determined for the peptide is remarkably similar to but definitely distinct from the known sequence of ANP, indicating that the genes for the two are distinct. Thus, we have designated the peptide 'brain natriuretic peptide' (BNP). The occurrence of BNP with ANP in mammalian brain suggests the possibility that the physiological functions so far thought to be mediated by ANP may be regulated through a dual mechanism involving both ANP and BNP.
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              The natriuretic-peptide family.


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2002
                07 October 2002
                : 22
                : 5-6
                : 437-444
                Department of Urology, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka, Japan
                65272 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:437–444
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 5, References: 35, Pages: 8
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